Introduction / History
Kharwar is a caste name found in the states of Assam, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Orissa. In Bihar, the caste "Kharwar" is at number 17 in the list of Scheduled Tribes, for five districts of Uttar Pradesh, "Khairwar / Kharwar" for five districts of Uttar Pradesh respectively, "Khairwar / Kharwar" is at number 7 in the list of Scheduled Tribes and for the remaining districts, it is at number 46 in the list of Scheduled Castes. Similarly, in Jharkhand, this caste is inscribed at number 16 of the list of Scheduled Tribes in the name of "Kharwar", in West Bengal at number 17 in the name of "Kharwar", in Orissa at number 30, in Chhattisgarhgarh at number 21 in the name of "Khairwar / Kondar", in Madhya Pradesh at number 22 in the name of "Khairwar / Kondar", in Maharashtra also at number 23 in the list of Scheduled Tribes. In some districts of Bihar and bordering Uttar Pradesh, there are some problems due to the reduction of the professional name in the khatiyan of the people of Kharwar caste, but the Uttar Pradesh government has ordered the certificate of Kharwar after investigation considering The Government Order No. 2013 dated 01.09.2017 as the professional name. In Bihar Bhabua, Rohtas, Buxar, Bhojpur, Chhapra Siwan, Gopalganj, East and West Champaran districts, Kharwars are also known by reducing the professional name, so there is a problem in issuing certificates here. Similarly, in some districts, Kharwar is also called Kahar, Kamua Bhulla and Khandhar. There is a problem in such districts too. Research on Kharwar Tribe: – The oldest research on Kharwar tribe along with other tribes was done by early British administrators whose purpose was to understand these tribes so that they could help in administration work. Prominent among these administrators are Rizley, Bukanin, Dalton, Crook and Tshering. At present, along with Dr. Shyamsunder Tiwari and Narmadeshwar Prasad, many researchers have also made it a subject of their research. The books of Prof. Sakaldeep Mandal and Shri Arjundas Kesari provide detailed information about the origin, development and traditions of kharwar tribe. Species – According to human scientists, kharwar tribe is a branch of Dravidian species. Before the arrival of the Aryans, many tribes settled in India. They came from Sindhughati and other areas. According to various scholars, the clans of two main species came through the north west. Among them was the Kharwar, a tribe of proto australoid or ostrich species. Bihar was formerly inhabited by the people of the Asura tribe, who were the pioneers of the Iron Age after the Copper Age. People of different tribal communities settled from time to time in this state and adjoining uttar pradesh and madhya pradesh in the valley of kaimur hills, Ganga, Son, Koel etc. rivers, where they have been migrating from one place to another in the event of conflict or opposition from Aryans or other tribes. Why Kharwar? - The theories given by historians on the basis of fables, folklore and historical evidence about the kharwar caste being referred to as "Kharwar" are related to their early men, place of origin, profession, or their character. These principles are as follows- 1- Karush to Karuvar and later started to be called Kharwar. 2- Due to its origin from Khairagarh, it is called Kharwar, Khairwar or Kherwar. 3- According to the Kharwaras of Mirzapur, due to making Katha as an early business and marrying Khair, he became known as Khairwar, or Kharwar. But it is known that now the people of this caste do not see the well-makers well and show hatred towards this profession. 4- According to Ridgeley, kharwar of Lohardaga considers khar (a kind of grass) sacred and does not cut it in the state of growing. Because of this khar, they were called Kharwar. Later, wherever they went, they were known by this name. 5- Kharwars are very firm in the word, so they were called kharwar. 6- Kharwar is very brave and fighter. In the war, the attack of his sword was very fast and accurate (Khar), so he is called Kharwar. Origin of Kharwars: - In the context of the origin of Kharwar / Khairwar tribe, most of the beliefs are in the form of legends. According to a belief, Karush, the sixth of Manu's nine sons, established his rule in the eastern states of India. According to F.E. Pargiter, the Vindhya region was known as Karush Desh. Karush settled in a place called Kher, due to which in time his child Kherwal and later Kherwar, Kharwar. In this way, the Kharwaras originated from Manu's sixth son Karush. 2- According to another belief, Kharwar people consider their origin from the sun. It is said that due to the coincidence of Lord Surya and Lakshmi daughter Sara, a boy named Bhujbal and a girl named Jaghram were born. This Bhujbal was the adipurush of the Kharwars. That is why Kharwar calls himself Suryavanshi. 3- Kharwar also considers its origin from Rohitashwa, son of Suryavanshi king Harishchandra. Rohitashv was expelled from the country due to the curse. They came to the forest and the help cell of the forest dwellers, they established their kingdom. During this time, he established a married woman with the forest dweller and the child born from her, the tradition of Kharwar dynasty started. 4- According to the janshrutis, kharwaras originated from the Kshatriya father and the mother of the Bharani tribe. According to another story, after many generations in the dynasty of Lord Rama, there was a great brave, brave and talented king named Khadaksen, after whom Kharagpur (West Bengal) is still named after him. The Kharag dynasty became popular in the name of Kharagsen, whose descendants were called Kharagwal, Kherwal, and Kharwar. 6- According to a legend prevalent in the Santhals, kharwaras originated from the eggs of Hansini. W. Crook explains that in ancient times, the queen of the princes crossed the ocean and came to Ahiripipri and went back with two eggs. After some time, a man and a woman were born among those eggs, who were the birth givers of the Santhal caste. The ancestors of Kharwaro from Ahiripipri came and settled in a place called Haradouti. Here their population grew very fast like khar (a grass). Due to growing like khar, they are called kharwar. Nesfield identified Ahiripipari as the hills near Chunar in Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh, where the Chero rulers were a stronghold. 7- A sub-caste of Kharwar in Chotanagpur believes in its origin from King Ben. According to the myth, the caste system was no longer important during the reign of King Ben. At that time, kharwars were born by the combination of Kshatriya warriors and women of bhar caste. According to Tshering, there is a hill tribal caste in Khairagarh Pargana of Allahabad called "Benwan". Tshering says, "The present king of Singrauli is Kharwar, but he calls himself Benwan. However, whatever the reality, the Kharwars still call themselves Suryavanshi, Kharagvanshi and historically the ruling class somewhere connects with the principles of the above origin. The Santhal tribe accepts Khairagarh, located in Hazaribagh district of Jharkhand state, as their native place, but the Khairwar of Mirzapur, Sonbhadra, who tells his native place Khairagarh, is south or west of Mirzapur. In this situation, it can be identified as Khairagarh located in thirty-six strongholds or Khairagarh Pargana in Allahabad district. According to the Mahabharata, Karush, the sixth of manu's nine sons, established his rule in eastern India. According to the visitor, the Vindhya region was known as Karush Desh. According to Bhagavata Purana, karush people used to be strong, religious protectors and powerful warriors. Pargitar Considers the karush empire to extend through the Son river in Sonbhadra to Rewa district. They cover the entire Kaimur Valley. Bc Law (1954) considers the domicile of Karusho in four places - first Rewa, second Shahabad, third Pundra country and fourth Vindhyachal range. According to the Mirzapur Gazetteer, an analysis of mythological narratives shows that Karusho's initial place was in the hills of Rewa and Mirzapur on the Vindhya mountains. In vayupurana, matsya purana, and markandeya purana, he is called vindhyapage resident. From there they probably had their displacement into two parts. One of his groups went towards Malwa which is described in the Brahmanda Purana as Dasharna and Avanti. The second team would have followed the food which was arranged from Mirzapur to Shahabad, Palamu and Singhbhum. In this way, Kharwar grew up in the plateau areas of Amarkantak (Vindhya ranges), Sondhari, Surguja of Palamu and Rohtas. Later, during the Mughal period, they migrated to the Valley of ganga and diara regions. Kharwar of Sonbhadra and Mirzapur believes that he has migrated from Rewa and Singrauli. The temple of his tribal pilgrimage Jwalamukhi Devi is located at a place called Kota in Singrauli tehsil of present-day Sonbhadra district. Even today, Brahmin priests are called from Singrauli or Palamu for worship on the ninth day of Chaitra month. According to W. Crook, the Kharwar people are related to the Cheron people in a way. Colonel Dalton has also seen the traditional relationship between kharwars and cheras. Chero came from Rohtas and attacked Palman at that time Kharwar held an important place in Palaman. The Cheras made a treaty with them and allowed them to live peacefully by occupying the land around Surguja. Those who helped him in this war campaign were given zamindari. At the time when the Cheron people came, the number of these people was 12 thousand families and kharwar was 18 thousand families. At that time, people used to tell the identity of Cheron and Kharwar only from 12 thousand and 18 thousand. Rizley has also told the marital relationship between the two. According to a theory of the origin of Kharwars, Khairwar / Kharwar also believes in his origin from kshatriya father and mother of Bhar caste. This marital relationship took place at the time of King Ben when the caste system was broken. Although this is considered to be the worst theory of kharwar origin, it links kharwars with bharas. According to Santhali legend, both Santhal and Kharwar originated from the same laughing egg. In this way, the ancestors of Santhals and Kharwars are one. People of Birhor tribe also say that Kharwar and those people belong to a dynasty, which is born from the sun. They tell a story of separation and say that this sub-branch is now slowly getting into Rajputs. According to Crook, this process has also started in Bengal (Bihar), where the kings of Ramgarh and Jaspur have given up their Turanian symptoms, and are getting married to Aryan families. Historical Era: - All the above details are often in the form of legends or legends, which were tried to be collected during the British period by those administrators who considered it necessary to study the castes and tribes of India for administration.These mass shrutis and legends have no written history. It simply keeps being transferred from one generation to another. Now let us move on to the historical era, whose written evidence exists. Whether it is in the form of inscriptions on large stones, or in the form of copper plates on metal foils. Such archaeological evidence has been found in Rohtas Citadel and its adjoining areas. Among these evidences, an inscription from Tutarahi, a village located on kaimur hill, is the most important, which was engraved by Naik Pratap Dhaval on Saturday, April 19, 1158, on the fourth day of Krishna Paksha in the Jyeshtha month of Vikram Samvat 1214 on the occasion of the death of Tutla Bhavani. The language of this inscription is Sanskrit and the script is early Nagari. This inscription is first mentioned by the French Bukanin in his travelogue (1813). In 1902 T. Blanch came here and read and gave information about this inscription. According to this inscription, Jagaddhatri Durga was consecrated by Nayak Pratapdhaval Dev Japilia. His family members and relatives were also present on the occasion. Like Sulahi (brother's wife), Tribhuvanlal (his brother), his three sons Shatrughan, Viradhat, and Sahas Dhaval. Five maids, Laduma, Laika, Alhi, Gatekeeper Vimal and Rajdarbar Pandit Vishwaroop etc. In this record, Pratap Dhaval has considered himself to be of the Khyarwal dynasty, according to historians, the apabhramsha of the Khyarwal dynasty is Kharwar. The second record has been found in Phulwarighat of Rohtasgarh, in which pratap Dhaval Dev mentions the road built to go up the Rohtas hill. This inscription is of Thursday, March 27, 1169, on the dwadashi date of Krishna Paksha in the Vaishakh month of Vikram Samvat 1285. The language of this inscription is Sanskrit and the script is Nagari. This inscription was discovered by Kilhorn in 1889. The third record is the Tarachandi inscription, which is just 20 days after the Phulwari Ghat inscription i.e. 16 April 11169, in which "Mahanayak" is engraved with his name. The next inscription of the Khayarwal dynasty is the Mill Tamrapatra Lekh on the eastern bank of the Sone River, which is of King Indradhaval, grandson of Pratapdhaval and son of Sahasradhaval. Through this, King Indradhaval, through his Mahamandalik (feudal) Udayaraj (king of Kandwa), has given gambhari village to two Brahmins Dhareshwar and Mahaditya. This copper inscription was released on October 27, 1197, which is about three years after the death of Gaharwal King Jaichand. By this time Indradhaval had become an independent king. The language of this copper plate is also Sanskrit and script Nagari is an important record, in which the name of Khadirpal, the founder of the Khayarwal dynasty, is also found. The next record of this dynasty is that of Kshitindra (King) Shri Pratap, who was written on a rock near Lal Darwaza in Rohtasgarh. This inscription was written on March 05, 1932 on the occasion of excavation of pond or well by a person named Madhav. Its language is also Sanskrit and script is Nagari. In this inscription, King Shri Pratap is called Yavan Dalan (destroyer of Yavanas). He probably defeated Muhammad, son of Bakhtiyar Khilji. According to "Tabqat-e-Nasiri", Muhammad received the jagir of Bhagavata and Bhaili between the Rivers Ganga and Karmanasha in 1199 AD. Through this inscription, it is revealed that this dynasty had resisted Muslim invaders in this area for at least 37 years. Francis Bukanin mentions the Bandu inscription in his travelogue. In this inscription, apart from Pratapdhawal Dev, the name of the rulers who ruled Rohtasgarh is given in order. A comparative analysis of the genealogy of the Khayarwal dynasty given from inscriptions, copperplatekhas and other sources shows that the founder of this dynasty was Khadirpal. And the last ruler known was Indradhaval. However, Shri Pratap's name is also inscribed on the inscription engraved near Lal Darwaza in Rohtasgarh. Various scholars have considered it to be the successor of Indradhaval. According to archaeological evidence, the rulers of the Khayarwal dynasty must have ruled from the son river to the front of the Karmanasha river. Similarly, in the 12th century, the kingdom of baland shah's descendants was established in Sonbhadra. Baland shah belonged to the Kharwar dynasty. His kingdom extended to the Belan River near Dhorawal and, to Palamu on the east, Singrauli on the south and Sidhi Rewa and Ambikapur in Madhya Pradesh, which was small in the circumstances of the 12th century. Can't be said. In Madwas, Rewa, the descendants of Baland Shah remained rulers till before independence. The influence of Islam and Islamic rulers increased in the medieval period. Rohtasgarh was captured by Sher Shah. In 1661, Dawood Khan subjugated the Cheron kings of Palamu. Rani Durgavati had to fight Asaf Khan. Overall, the erosion of forest states started in the medieval period. Nevertheless, there is evidence of their rule somewhere till the 18th century till the pre-independence.
Where Are they Located?
Areas with significant populations like Assam, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal Maharashtra, Orissa,
What Are Their Lives Like?
Kharwar's primary traditional economic activity has been agriculture. Due to their dependence on the same annual crop and suitable weather they engage in work based on forest activities, livestock, fishing, hunting and nets to sustain themselves. Kharwar of Assam works in farming as well as tea leaf making of Assam.
What Are Their Beliefs?
Kharwar also believes in his origin from Rohitashva, son of Suryavanshi king Harishchandra. Rohitashv was expelled from the country due to the curse. They came to the forest and the help cell of the forest dwellers, they established their kingdom. During this time, he established a married woman with the forest dweller and the child born from her, the tradition of Kharwar dynasty started.
Scripture Prayers for the Kharwar in India.