Gangakula in India

The Gangakula have only been reported in India
Population
Main Language
Largest Religion
Christian
Evangelical
Progress
Progress Gauge

Subgroups: 19 (10 largest shown)  Show all

Subgroup Name Population
Kabber 157,000
Ambig 54,000
Bailgammar 1,700
Bhoi 1,700
Durgamurgi 1,700
Koli 1,700
Bailugar 1,600
Bovar 1,600
Gauda 1,600
Haig 1,600

Introduction / History

The Gangakula or Kabbaliga or Koli have been fishermen or boatmen for hundreds of years in south India. "Koli" means boat in Sanskrit. Since fishing and making boats were considered lower occupations in Hindu society, Koli were placed in a lower caste. They also work as village watchmen and as landless farm laborers. Even today many Koli, both men and women, are illiterate. During the British period, Koli became part of small armies who maintained order in south India. Modern education is giving young Gangakula an opportunity to rise above their ancestors' status by becoming doctors, teachers and business owners.

The primary language of the Gangakula is Kannada.


Where Are they Located?

The vast majority of Gangakula live in the south Indian state of Karnataka. Others live in Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra and other areas of south India.


What Are Their Lives Like?

Many Gangakula still work in their traditional job as fishermen, ferrymen and boat builders. They fish the rivers, lakes and ocean of south India. They ferry people across rivers where no bridge is available. They sell their fish in the villages and cities. Some also work on farms owned by others. Women work as domestics to gain more income for their families.

Families arrange marriages. Girls marry in their mid-teens while boys marry in their late teens. Cousin marriages are common. Village Brahman priests perform the weddings. Sons inherit family property with the eldest son getting the home. New couples live near or with the groom's family.

Lack of education has hampered the Gangakula from raising their status. That is slowly changing with young people graduating from college and entering professional careers.


What Are Their Beliefs?

The Gangakula are Hindus. They worship and serve the gods of the Hindu pantheon. They pay special attention to Ganesha, the god of success and good fortune and Durga, the warrior-mother goddess who fights evil spirits. Due to their low status Gangakula are often denied entrance into Hindu temples. They build temporary temples called pantals to Ganesha and Durga.

The Gangakula participate in the major Hindu holidays like Holi, the festival of colors, Diwali, the festival of lights and Navratri, the nine-day celebration in autumn.


What Are Their Needs?

The Gangakula need to hear the good news of Jesus Christ in a way they are understand. They need to see that Hinduism will not save them from their sins. They need help in providing an education for their children.


Prayer Points

* Scripture Prayers for the Gangakula in India.

* Pray that God sends Christian workers and teachers to help the Gangakula escape their spiritual and physical poverty.
* Pray the Gangakula see Christ's love in the lives of Indian Christians.
* Pray the Lord opens the heart of the Gangakula and many become believers in a growing church in their community.


References

shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/174766/10/10_chapter%203.pdf


Profile Source:   David Kugel  

People Name General Gangakula
People Name in Country Gangakula
World Population 1,509,000
Total Countries 1
Indigenous Yes
Progress Scale 1
Unreached Yes
Frontier People Group Yes
GSEC 2  (per PeopleGroups.org)
Pioneer Workers Needed 30
Alternate Names Ambiga, Bhoi, Gam Naik, Gamvakkal, Gangabigur, Gangamakkalu, Gangaputra, Gangauda, Gangemakkalu, Gaurimata, Gowrimatha, Kabbali, Kabbera, Kahar, Kharia, Koli, गंगकुला
People ID 16785
ROP3 Code 112046
Affinity Bloc South Asian Peoples
People Cluster Kannada
People Group Gangakula
Ethnic Code CNN23a
Total Subgroups 19 (only 15 largest shown)
  Kabber 157,000
  Ambig 54,000
  Bailgammar 1,700
  Bhoi 1,700
  Durgamurgi 1,700
  Koli 1,700
  Bailugar 1,600
  Bovar 1,600
  Gauda 1,600
  Haig 1,600
Country India
Region South Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 10  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States on file 11
Largest States
Karnataka
1,384,000
Tamil Nadu
68,000
Maharashtra
30,000
Andhra Pradesh
11,000
Goa
8,600
Telangana
4,500
Kerala
2,100
Delhi
800
Gujarat
200
Madhya Pradesh
60
Chhattisgarh
20
Specialized Website South Asia Peoples
Country India
Region South Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 10  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States 11
  Karnataka 1,384,000
  Tamil Nadu 68,000
  Maharashtra 30,000
  Andhra Pradesh 11,000
  Goa 8,600
  Telangana 4,500
  Kerala 2,100
  Delhi 800
  Gujarat 200
  Madhya Pradesh 60
  Chhattisgarh 20
Website South Asia Peoples
Primary Language Kannada (1,434,000 speakers)
Language Code kan   Ethnologue Listing
Language Written Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages 7
Secondary Languages
Telugu
28,000
Konkani, Goan
21,000
Konkani
15,000
Tulu
11,000
Tamil
600
Malayalam
60
Primary Language Kannada (1,434,000 speakers)
Language Code kan   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages 7
Secondary Languages
  Telugu 28,000
  Konkani, Goan 21,000
  Konkani 15,000
  Tulu 11,000
  Tamil 600
  Malayalam 60
People Groups Speaking Kannada

Primary Language:  Kannada

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible-Portions Yes  (1812-1988)
Bible-New Testament Yes  (1823-1995)
Bible-Complete Yes  (1831-2000)
Bible-NT Audio Online
Bible-NT Text Online
Possible Print Bibles
Amazon
Forum Bible Agencies
National Bible Societies
World Bible Finder
World Bibles
Resource Type Resource Name
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio Recordings Father's Love Letter
Audio Recordings Online New Testament (FCBH)
Audio Recordings Online Scripture / Bible
Audio Recordings Oral Bible stories in Kannada
Audio Recordings Story of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video Following Jesus (India, JF Project)
Film / Video God's Story Video
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Kannada
Film / Video Magdalena (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video My Last Day (Jesus Film Project Anime)
Film / Video Story of Jesus for Children (JF Project)
General Four Spiritual Laws
General Got Questions Ministry
Mobile App Download Bible from Google Play Store
Text / Printed Matter Bible
Text / Printed Matter Bible: ಕನ್ನಡ - Kannada
Text / Printed Matter Bibles, Bible League
Text / Printed Matter International Bible Society
Text / Printed Matter OneHope resources for children and youth
Primary Religion: Hinduism
Major Religion Percent *
Buddhism
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
Hinduism
100.00 %
Islam
0.00 %
Non-Religious
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
Unknown
0.00 %
Photo Source Steve Evans  Creative Commons 
Map Source People Group Location: Omid. Other geography / data: GMI. Map Design: Joshua Project  
Profile Source David Kugel  
Data Sources Data is compiled from various sources. Read more
* Religion Values From latest India census data.  Current values may differ.


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