Gadaba in India

The Gadaba have only been reported in India
Population
Main Language
Largest Religion
Christian
Evangelical
Progress
Progress Gauge

Subgroups: 10

Subgroup Name Population
Parenga 10,000
Olari 8,600
Kathiri 6,200
Bodo 6,000
Jurunu 4,500
Kalaya 4,500
Kapu 4,400
Thundam 2,100
Kulodondia 400
Godo 200

Introduction / History

The Munda-Santal of northeastern India and Nepal are comprised of nine different, but very closely related people groups. They are distributed politically throughout the states of Bihar, West Bengal, and Orissa, India. Most of the tribes live in the hilly areas of the Chotanagpur Plateau, located in southern Bihar. Others prefer living in the plains. Beyond this region, they have spread widely throughout India as agricultural and industrial laborers.

The seven groups who occupy territory farther north include the Santal (of India and Nepal), the Bhumij, the Koda, the Mahili, the Ho, and the Agariya. The two remaining groups, the Juango and the Gadaba, are located in the southern portion of India, nearer to the coast of the Bay of Bengal. The native language of the Munda-Santal, called Munda, belongs to the Austro-Asiatic language family.

Tribal culture among the Munda-Santal is quickly changing under the impact of external influences such as industrialization, new communication links, tribal welfare schemes, and community development projects.


What Are Their Lives Like?

Traditions regarding the origin of the Munda-Santal tribes are uncertain; but originally, the forested area of Chotanagpur was ruled by chiefs of various native tribes. Gradually, British authority was established in the plains.

There are records of a Munda revolt in 1831-1832 and a Santal rebellion of 1855-1858. Of the nine Munda-Santal groups, only the Bhumij have been rulers. For this reason, they claim a higher social status than the others.

Most of the Munda-Santal population depends on farming for survival. Some rural families depend on village or cottage industries such as weaving. They supplement their meager agricultural earnings with hunting and gathering.

Today, the government is trying to preserve forests, so cultivation shifting is limited. There is also an increase in the amount of irrigated land. As a result, other sources of income have been developed. They include such jobs as working in the tea plantations of the Northeast, working in the steel industry, or working as day laborers for local Hindu landowners. Since the Chotanagpur Plateau is the richest mineral belt in India, some of the Munda-Santal earn wages by mining. Both men and women work to bring home adequate income for their families.

Although very few of the tribes live by trade, some have traditional artisan or specialist occupations. Two such groups are the Koda, who are ditch diggers, and the Gadaba, who are known for their wall-paintings. Generally, though, Hindu artisans supply most of the tribes' needs.

The weekly market plays an important part in the economy of these tribes. For example, some Mahili sell their bamboo basketry in local markets.

Munda-Santal settlements are usually located in river valleys; deforested, eroded areas; and mineral and industrial belts. The majority of the people live in clustered villages or villages with one street.

The Munda-Santal are divided into clans which recognize a common ancestor. The clans often marry those who are from other tribes; however, there are smaller sub-tribes who are permitted to marry only those within their group. There is also a bachelor's dormitory, dhumkuria, in all Munda-Santal groups except the Juango.

The Munda-Santal have a rich artistic heritage, especially in music and dance. Most tribal villages have a dance floor where worship is offered by a village priest. Though the villages are run by "headmen," the panchayat (religious scholar or monk) is consulted concerning the most important matters. Most conflicts within the tribes concern land rights or marriage.


What Are Their Beliefs?

The Munda-Santal tribes tend to preserve their own beliefs, values, and separate identity. In all of the groups, most are Hindus, while the others practice ethnic religions.

In Don Richardson's "Eternity In Their Hearts," we learn about their ancient God called Thakur Jiu, or "Genuine God." They thought that He had forgotten them because they had turned away from Him in fear of the Maran Buru, or "spirits of the great mountains." Their ancestors had made an oath with the Maran Buru when migrating to their present lands. They began to practice spirit appeasement, sorcery, and sun worship.

Today, their supreme god is the sun god. However, they have also adopted the Hindu deities in addition to tribal gods and goddesses. The Hindu village priest is the ritual specialist, and they observe many Hindu festivals. They do have a firm belief in an almighty creator and also in "mother earth."


What Are Their Needs?

In places where the Gospel is being preached to the Munda-Santal, the listeners almost immediately receive after the village council talks it over. These precious tribes are ripe unto harvest; they simply need people to show them the way to the true God!


Prayer Points

* Ask the Lord to call people who are willing to go to India and Nepal and share Christ with these tribes.
* Pray that the Holy Spirit will soften their hearts towards the Gospel.
* Ask God to call out prayer teams to break up the soil through worship and intercession.
* Ask God to encourage and protect the small number of Hindus who have converted to Christianity.
* Pray that God will complete the work begun in the hearts of these believers through adequate discipleship.
* Ask the Lord to raise up a triumphant Church among each of the Munda-Santal tribes for the glory of His name!


Profile Source:   Bethany World Prayer Center  

People Name General Gadaba
People Name in Country Gadaba
World Population 133,000
Total Countries 1
Indigenous Yes
Progress Scale 1
Unreached Yes
Frontier People Group No
GSEC 2  (per PeopleGroups.org)
Pioneer Workers Needed 3
Alternate Names Gadaba-Cerilam, Gadaba-Franji, Gadaba-Jodia, Gadaba-Olaro, Gadaba-Pangi, Gadaba-Pranga, Gadabasboda, Gitadim, Gutomi, Modililu, Mogililu, गड़बा
People ID 16769
ROP3 Code 112022
Affinity Bloc South Asian Peoples
People Cluster South Asian, other
People Group Gadaba
Ethnic Code AUG04z
Total Subgroups 10
  Parenga 10,000
  Olari 8,600
  Kathiri 6,200
  Bodo 6,000
  Jurunu 4,500
  Kalaya 4,500
  Kapu 4,400
  Thundam 2,100
  Kulodondia 400
  Godo 200
Country India
Region South Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 11  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States on file 9
Largest States
Odisha
85,000
Andhra Pradesh
38,000
Chhattisgarh
8,000
Maharashtra
800
Madhya Pradesh
700
Telangana
300
Delhi
100
Karnataka
80
Puducherry
70
Specialized Website South Asia Peoples
Country India
Region South Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 11  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States 9
  Odisha 85,000
  Andhra Pradesh 38,000
  Chhattisgarh 8,000
  Maharashtra 800
  Madhya Pradesh 700
  Telangana 300
  Delhi 100
  Karnataka 80
  Puducherry 70
Website South Asia Peoples
Primary Language Telugu (26,000 speakers)
Language Code tel   Ethnologue Listing
Language Written Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages 44
Secondary Languages
(only 15 largest shown)
Gadaba, Pottangi Ollar
24,000
Odia
23,000
Bhatri
22,000
Gadaba, Mudhili
11,000
Hindi
8,600
Pengo
7,000
Chhattisgarhi
2,200
Kuvi
1,700
Koya
1,400
Gadaba, Bodo
1,400
Kui
1,200
Halbi
900
Duruwa
500
Parenga
300
Gondi, Northern
200
Primary Language Telugu (26,000 speakers)
Language Code tel   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages 44
Secondary Languages (only 15 largest shown)
  Gadaba, Pottangi Ollar 24,000
  Odia 23,000
  Bhatri 22,000
  Gadaba, Mudhili 11,000
  Hindi 8,600
  Pengo 7,000
  Chhattisgarhi 2,200
  Kuvi 1,700
  Koya 1,400
  Gadaba, Bodo 1,400
  Kui 1,200
  Halbi 900
  Duruwa 500
  Parenga 300
  Gondi, Northern 200
People Groups Speaking Telugu

Primary Language:  Telugu

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible-Portions Yes  (1812-1966)
Bible-New Testament Yes  (1818-1989)
Bible-Complete Yes  (1854-2002)
Bible-NT Audio Online
Bible-NT Text Online
Possible Print Bibles
Amazon
Forum Bible Agencies
National Bible Societies
World Bible Finder
World Bibles
Resource Type Resource Name
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio Recordings Father's Love Letter
Audio Recordings Online New Testament (FCBH)
Audio Recordings Online Scripture (Talking Bibles)
Audio Recordings Oral Bible stories in Telugu
Audio Recordings Story of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video Following Jesus (India, JF Project)
Film / Video God's Story Video
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Telugu
Film / Video Magdalena (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video My Last Day (Jesus Film Project Anime)
Film / Video Story of Jesus for Children (JF Project)
Film / Video The Hope Video
Film / Video The Pearl of Great Price (Indigitube.tv)
General Bible Visuals
General Four Spiritual Laws
General God's Simple Plan
General Got Questions Ministry
Mobile App Download Bible from Google Play Store
Text / Printed Matter Bible
Primary Religion: Hinduism
Major Religion Percent *
Buddhism
0.01 %
Christianity  (Evangelical Unknown)
0.74 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
Hinduism
98.91 %
Islam
0.14 %
Non-Religious
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.03 %
Unknown
0.17 %
Photo Source Copyrighted © 2018  Henk Sebregts  All rights reserved.  Used with permission
Map Source Bethany World Prayer Center  
Profile Source Bethany World Prayer Center  
Data Sources Data is compiled from various sources. Read more
* Religion Values From latest India census data.  Current values may differ.


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