Tsakhur in Russia

Main Language
Largest Religion
Progress Gauge

Other PDF Profile

Introduction / History

Roughly two- thirds of all Tsakhur live in northern Azerbaijan. There, they enjoy a mild climate, fertile soil, and good communications. The remaining group live in the southwestern part of Daghestan, a harsh, mountainous area with limited communications. The Tsakhur call themselves Iiqhy, but are generally known by the name of their largest village, Tsakhur.

Originally, the Tsakhur lived in Daghestan, but during the thirteenth century, some of them moved north into Azerbaijan. Throughout the years, they have fought for independence from the Turks and Persians. In the beginning of the nineteenth century, they looked to Russia for help and became part of the Russian Empire. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the Tsakhur in Daghestan were exiled to Azerbaijan, but returned to their homeland nine years later. However, others chose to remain in Azerbaijan.

What Are Their Lives Like?

Traditionally, the Tsakhur were farmers, growing maize, barleycorn, wheat, rice, and millet. They also raised cattle, sheep, and domestic fowl. Their income was supplemented through gardening, producing silk, and growing tobacco. In Soviet times, the economy continued to develop, due to new technology.

The traditional Tsakhur diet consisted of meat, milk products, and grain, supplemented by fruits and vegetables. Alcoholic drinks and tea were added in the beginning of the twentieth century. Today, many traditional dishes are still prepared, and techniques for preserving fruits and vegetables and for making jams and pickles have improved.

The Tsakhur traditionally wove textiles from wool combined with silk threads. Other traditional crafts included the making of rugs, the knitting of woolen socks and footwear, and working in wood, leather, and metal. In Soviet times, knitting and rug making were maintained as crafts.

The Tsakhur formerly belonged to tukhums, or family clusters with common male ancestors. Even though the importance of tukhums is less today, it is still undesirable to marry a person from a less honored family. Young Tsakhur choose their own marriage partners but still rely on the help of matchmakers. Weddings last two to five days and involve all relatives and villagers. The Tsakhur live in nuclear families, which consist of the father, the mother, and their unmarried children.

In the 1930s, a Latin-based alphabet was introduced to the Tsakhur. However, this script was abandoned some years later, and the Tsakhur language was not used for writing for the remainder of the Soviet period. Azerbaijani has always served as the language of instruction, and today, most Tsakhur are fluent in it. Recently, the decision has been made to make Tsakhur a written language again.

What Are Their Beliefs?

The Tsakhur are almost all Muslim. In the thirteenth century, the city of Tsakhur was one of the main centers of Islam in southern Daghestan. The mosques were the centers of religious life and were erected on the central square of the village. Mullahs (Muslim priests) served in the mosques and carried out various rituals. However, some ceremonies were related to pre-Islamic customs. These included performing the "rites of spring" (lighting bonfires and jumping through them), collecting of flowers, evoking the rain, and performing certain wedding rituals. Traces of animism were also preserved: belief in the special power of stones, trees, fire, water, and spirits. In case of sickness or disease, the Tsakhur traditionally sought the aid of local healers, diviners and sorcerers; used magic; and went on pilgrimages to holy places. Today, modern medicine is used, along with healing arts.

What Are Their Needs?

Over 1,000 years ago many Tsakhur heard the gospel and responded by choosing to follow Christ. However, without a Bible they were unable to pass on their faith to the following generations. The Tsakhur are in desperate need of a viable Christian witness among them. The overwhelming majority have never heard a clear presentation of the Gospel.

Prayer Points

Ask the Lord of the harvest to call missionaries to work among the Tsakhur.
Ask the Holy Spirit to soften the hearts of the Tsakhur towards the Gospel.
Ask the Lord to strengthen, protect, and embolden the few Tsakhur believers.
Ask God to raise up faithful intercessors who will stand in the gap for the Tsakhur.
Pray that strong local churches will be raised up among the Tsakhur.

Scripture Prayers for the Tsakhur in Russia.


www.globalprayerdigest.org via 30 Days of Prayer for the Muslim World 2014, pg 18.

Profile Source:   Bethany World Prayer Center  
Other PDF Profile

People Name General Tsakhur
People Name in Country Tsakhur
Alternate Names Caxur
Population this Country 13,000
Population all Countries 44,000
Total Countries 2
Indigenous No
Progress Scale 1
Unreached Yes
Frontier People Group Yes
GSEC 1  (per PeopleGroups.org)
Pioneer Workers Needed 1
People ID 15587
ROP3 Code 110205
ROP25 Code 308295
ROP25 Name Tsakhur
Country Russia
Region Europe, Eastern and Eurasia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window No
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank Not ranked
Location in Country Dagestan Republic: Rutulsky district. 13 villages.   Source:  Ethnologue 2016
Country Russia
Region Europe, Eastern and Eurasia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window No
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank Not ranked
Location in Country Dagestan Republic: Rutulsky district. 13 villages..   Source:  Ethnologue 2016
Primary Religion: Islam
Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.08 %)
0.08 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
0.00 %
99.92 %
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %
Primary Language Tsakhur (13,000 speakers)
Language Code tkr   Ethnologue Listing
Language Written Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages 1
Primary Language Tsakhur (13,000 speakers)
Language Code tkr   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages 1
People Groups Speaking Tsakhur
Photo Source Bethany World Prayer Center 
Map Source Withheld by request   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Profile Source Bethany World Prayer Center 
Data Sources Data is compiled from various sources. Learn more.

Joshua Project logo    Joshua Project    Copyright © 2024