Abkhaz in Turkey

Largest Religion
Main Language
Progress Gauge

Introduction / History

Most of the world's Abkhazian live in the nations of Russia and Georgia. However, a significant community can be found living in Turkey. While they are scattered throughout much of the country, the largest concentration of Abkhazian is located along the Black Sea coast in north-central Turkey.

In the fifteenth century, the Ottoman Turks conquered the Caucasus Mountain region of Russia and Georgia. At that time, many of the native Abkhazian converted from Christianity to Islam. The Russians, however, gradually took control of the region, and by the late 1800's, they dominated the Muslim Abkhazian. Feeling threatened by Christian Russia, many Abkhazian accepted an offer of refuge from Muslim Turkey and moved there. In recent years, the Abkhazian have begun to be assimilated into mainstream Turkish culture and, as a result, are in danger of losing their identity as a separate ethnic group in Turkey.

What Are Their Lives Like?

Little is known about the lives of the Abkhazian in Turkey; however, it is known that they have retained much of their identity. They have somewhat conserved their Caucasian traditions, and unlike even in the Caucasus (or in Europe), they have preserved their caste system, and still resist assimilation. In addition, the Abkhazian have retained their native tongue, which is one of the most complex languages on earth. This language has more than 50 consonants, with numerous pronunciations for each one. Because of the difficulty of their own language, the Abkhazian are extremely adept at learning other languages.

The great majority of the Abkhazian are farmers and animal herders. Tobacco is their major crop, but tea, fruits, and vegetables are also grown. Cattle breeding is another important aspect of the Abkhazian economy. Because of their livelihood, nine out of ten Abkhazian live in rural areas. Their houses are built of brick or concrete and have either one or two stories. Most homes have verandas and balconies, where families enjoy spending time in good weather.

Most Abkhazian women marry in their early twenties, but men often wait until their thirties or even forties. Marriage is forbidden with all possible relatives; individuals are not allowed to wed anyone with the same surname as any of their grandparents. In the past, the young man and his friends kidnapped the young woman and took her to his house, where the marriage ceremony was performed. Whether or not the bride was abducted, her family does not attend the wedding. She is required to stand silent and secluded while her husband's family feasts and celebrates.

The Abkhazian highly value hospitality. A guest is given the same respect as a father or grandfather and is seated at a place of honor at the table. The arrival of a guest is accompanied by a ritual feast. Over wine, hosts and guests go through rounds of toasts, honoring each other and getting to know each other better. Providing hospitality in this way is a source of family pride.

What Are Their Beliefs?

Although most of the Abkhazian of Russia and Georgia are Christians, those in Turkey are Muslims, at least nominally.

What Are Their Needs?

The Abkhazian of Turkey desperately need to hear of the Savior. Turkey is officially a secular state with a limited amount of religious freedom. Therefore, Christians are not completely free to share their faith.

Prayer Points

* Ask the Lord to call Christian Abkhazian from Russia and Georgia to share Christ with their brothers in Turkey.
* Ask the Lord to soften the hearts of Turkey's governmental leaders towards the preaching of the Gospel.
* Ask the Lord to save key leaders among the Abkhazian who will boldly declare the Gospel.
* Pray that Christian literature and media will be made available to the Abkhazian.
* Ask God to raise up intercessors who will stand in the gap for the Abkhazian.
* Pray that strong local churches will be raised up among the Abkhazian.

Profile Source:   Bethany World Prayer Center  
Expanded PDF Profile

Prayer / Resource Links:
Global Prayer Digest: 2015-11-10
People Name General Abkhaz
People Name in Country Abkhaz
Population in Turkey 156,000
World Population 293,700
Total Countries 6
Indigenous Yes
Unreached Yes
Progress Scale 1
Alternate Names Abkhazian, Abxazo, Abzhui, Apswa, Bzyb, Ubyx
People ID 10130
ROP3 Code 100018
Country Turkey
Region Central Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 45  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Northeast, Artvin Province; also Coruh, Bolu, and Sakarya subprovinces.   Source:  Ethnologue 2016
Country Turkey
Region Central Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 45  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Northeast, Artvin Province; also Coruh, Bolu, and Sakarya subprovinces..   Source:  Ethnologue 2016
Primary Language: Abkhaz

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions Yes   (1981)
New Testament Yes   (1912-2004)
Complete Bible No
Possible Print Bibles
Forum of Bible Agencies
Gospel Go
World Bible Finder
World Bibles
Resource Type Resource Name
General Got Questions Ministry
Primary Religion: Islam

Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
0.00 %
100.00 %
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %
Christian Segments Percent
Other Christian
Roman Catholic
Photo Source: Bethany World Prayer Center  
Map Source: Bethany World Prayer Center  
Profile Source: Bethany World Prayer Center  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more

Copyright © 2017 Joshua Project.  A ministry of Frontier Ventures.