Li, Ha in China

Joshua Project has identified the Li, Ha only in China
Population
684,000
Christian
Evangelical
Largest Religion
Main Language
Progress
Progress Gauge

Identity

The Ha are the largest of the groups under the official Li nationality.

The Ha language is the lingua franca used by most of the Li on Hainan Island. It has three main dialects. A Roman orthography for the Li was created in 1957. Ha Li shares 30% lexical similarity with Northern Zhuang, 27% with Gelao, and 26% with Dong.


History

For centuries the Li rebelled against Chinese rule of Hainan. During World War II, the Li joined the Communists to fight the Japanese who had invaded the island in 1939. Hainan was considered a part of Guangdong until 1988, when it was granted status as a separate province.


Customs

Ha Li women in the past wore 56 huge earrings during festivals. One visitor described their appearance: "The ears of the Ha women were weighted down with silver and brass, and their ankles were circled with silver and gold bands. The women I saw did not cover their breasts. They were very coy and shy. The men were tall, many six feet, and wore their black or brown hair in big knots extending out about four inches from their foreheads. Many wore turbans of red, white, and blue through which they extended a big knot. They dressed in G-strings, and carried great knives in baskets at their backs."


Religion

The Ha Li god, Pa-Thung, "is a good god, and lives in some unknown place. But his agents, devils sent to watch the (Ha Li) villages, are ever present and always live in a nearby cave, in a river, in the jungle, or on a nearby mountain. The villages have paid priests, or witchdoctors, who complain to Pa-Thung when local devils spitefully send thunder, lightning, and rain or when they bring famine or sickness to the people."


Christianity

Of the approximately 1,000 Li believers on Hainan Island, the majority are among the Ha Li. Many Li churches are filled with rampant heresies and cultic activities. One Christian visitor described a bizarre Li church service. "The leader drinks a cup of tea which has been blessed by the Holy Spirit and sprays it over the believers. Then they close their eyes and dance until they become exhausted and fall to the ground. The Li Christians lack familiarity with the Bible."


Profile Source:   Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  

Prayer Links:
Global Prayer Digest: 2012-06-26
People Name General Li, Ha
People Name in Country Li, Ha
Population in China 684,000
World Population 684,000
Total Countries 1
Indigenous Yes
Least-Reached Yes
Progress Scale 1
GSEC 3  (per PeopleGroups.org)
Alternate Names Bli, Dli, La, Lai, Le, Li, Loi, Paoting
People ID 18550
Country China
Region Northeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 33  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Approximately 540,000 speakers of Ha Li are located in the western part of Hainan Island. The Ha Li live primarily in Ledong, Yaxian, and Dongfang counties, although they can also be found on the fringes of four other neighboring counties. Hainan was a hunter's paradise until recently, and even now a large number of wild animals can still be found in the more mountainous regions. In 1938 one visitor reported, "Hainan's wild-life includes two species of deer… porcupines, foxes, flying squirrels, monkeys, and pythons… there are also boars… leopards, black gibbons, and numerous birds such as parrots, pheasants, mynas, pigeons and doves."   Source:  Operation China, 2000
Country China
Region Northeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 33  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Approximately 540,000 speakers of Ha Li are located in the western part of Hainan Island. The Ha Li live primarily in Ledong, Yaxian, and Dongfang counties, although they can also be found on the fringes of four other neighboring counties. Hainan was a hunter's paradise until recently, and even now a large number of wild animals can still be found in the more mountainous regions. In 1938 one visitor reported, "Hainan's wild-life includes two species of deer… porcupines, foxes, flying squirrels, monkeys, and pythons… there are also boars… leopards, black gibbons, and numerous birds such as parrots, pheasants, mynas, pigeons and doves.".   Source:  Operation China, 2000
Primary Language: Hlai (684,000 speakers)   People group listing
Language Code: lic   Ethnologue Listing
Written: Unknown
Primary Dialect: Ha
Dialect Code: 10651   Global Recordings Listing
Total Languages: 1
Primary Language: Hlai (684,000 speakers)   People group listing
Language Code: lic   Ethnologue Listing
Primary Dialect: Ha
Dialect Code: 10651   Global Recordings Listing
Total Languages: 1
Primary Language: Hlai

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions No
New Testament No
Complete Bible No
Resource Type Resource Name
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching (GRN)
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Hlai, Has
Film / Video Story of Hope (Indigitube.tv)
Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions

Major Religion Percent
Buddhism
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.11 %)
0.20 %
Ethnic Religions
95.00 %
Hinduism
0.00 %
Islam
0.00 %
Non-Religious
4.80 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
Unknown
0.00 %
Christian Segments Percent
Anglican
0.0 %
Independent
100.0 %
Orthodox
0.0 %
Other Christian
0.0 %
Protestant
0.0 %
Roman Catholic
0.0 %
Photo Source: Operation China, Paul Hattaway   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Map Source: Joshua Project / Global Mapping International  
Profile Source: Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more


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