Aoka in China

Joshua Project has identified the Aoka only in China
Population
320,000
Christian
Evangelical
Largest Religion
Main Language
Progress
Progress Gauge

Identity

Although they are officially part of the Miao nationality, the Aoka speak a unique Chinese language - a fact they apparently refuse to accept. When linguists visited them and told them that they spoke a form of Chinese, "they claimed that they spoke Miao, because their speech was very different from that of the surrounding Chinese population, and because they wore Miao clothes instead of Chinese clothes."


History

In the aftermath of Chinese wars against them, the ancestors of the Aoka were launched into an era of migration. Tired of being harassed, they fled across mountain ranges in hope of finding an isolated place where they could be left alone to live their lives. Many of the ethnic groups now known as the Hmu also traveled into Hunan and Guangxi. They may be the ancestors of the Aoka. After centuries of living beside the all-powerful Han Chinese, the Aoka have lost their language and are being speedily assimilated to the Han Chinese language and culture.


Customs

Aoka communities work together as one to design and build homes for each other. During a crisis, all the people come together to find a solution. In many villages, the Aoka believe the stove is the center of their home and they are afraid to offend the "spirit of the stove". They are forbidden to place their feet or shoes on the stove, and at night they must remove all pots and pans from it: not to do so is believed to bring a curse to the family.


Religion

Some Aoka believe there was once a ladder connecting heaven to the earth. A long time ago the ladder was broken and no people have been able to visit heaven since. Today the majority of Aoka are animists, living under the influence of demons and evil spirits. Many have also adopted the ancestor worship belief systems of their Han Chinese neighbors.


Christianity

More than three-quarters of Aoka people have yet to hear the gospel for the first time. No widespread mission effort was undertaken in their area before missionaries were expelled from China in the early 1950s. There are few Miao or Han Chinese Christian communities in that part of China today. Hunan remains one of the most unreached provinces in China. Although they have their own spoken language, the Aoka use the Chinese script for writing. Few Aoka, however, are literate enough to read the Chinese Bible or other evangelistic literature.


Profile Source:   Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  

People Name General Aoka
People Name in Country Aoka
Population in China 320,000
World Population 320,000
Total Countries 1
Indigenous Yes
Least-Reached Yes
Progress Scale 1
GSEC 2  (per PeopleGroups.org)
Alternate Names Ao Biao, Mao, Maojia, Qingyi Miao
People ID 18398
ROP3 Code 113992
Country China
Region Northeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 33  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country The 1991 Encyclopedic Dictionary of Chinese Linguistics lists 200,000 Aoka people who speak the Maojia language, also known as Qingyi Miao. They are located in the mountains of Chengbu County in southwestern Hunan Province; and also in the Ziyun District of Longsheng County in the northeastern part of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.   Source:  Operation China, 2000
Country China
Region Northeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 33  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country The 1991 Encyclopedic Dictionary of Chinese Linguistics lists 200,000 Aoka people who speak the Maojia language, also known as Qingyi Miao. They are located in the mountains of Chengbu County in southwestern Hunan Province; and also in the Ziyun District of Longsheng County in the northeastern part of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region..   Source:  Operation China, 2000
Primary Language: Chinese, Xiang (320,000 speakers)   People group listing
Language Code: hsn   Ethnologue Listing
Written: Unknown
Total Languages: 1
Primary Language: Chinese, Xiang (320,000 speakers)   People group listing
Language Code: hsn   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
Primary Language: Chinese, Xiang

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Translation Need Questionable
Resource Type Resource Name
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio Recordings Story of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Chinese, Xiang
General Four Spiritual Laws
Text / Printed Matter Bible-in-Your-Language
Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions

Major Religion Percent
Buddhism
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.70 %)
1.00 %
Ethnic Religions
92.00 %
Hinduism
0.00 %
Islam
0.00 %
Non-Religious
7.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
Unknown
0.00 %
Christian Segments Percent
Anglican
0.0 %
Independent
100.0 %
Orthodox
0.0 %
Other Christian
0.0 %
Protestant
0.0 %
Roman Catholic
0.0 %
Photo Source: Anonymous  
Map Source: Joshua Project / Global Mapping International  
Profile Source: Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more


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