Chamar (Hindu traditions) in Pakistan


Population
Main Language
Largest Religion
Christian
Evangelical
Progress
Progress Gauge
* Data can be from various sources including official census, agencies, and local research. Data from these sources can sometimes differ even by orders of magnitude. Joshua Project attempts to present a conservative, balanced estimate.

Introduction / History

The Chamar people are also known as Bhambi, Asadaru, Khalpa, Machigar, Lingayat, Mochi and Rohit. They live primarily in India's western states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Bihar. Smaller numbers live in other countries of South Asia such as Pakistan and Bangladesh.


What Are Their Lives Like?

They are considered to have very low status, and most of them know nothing else their entire lives. Because of their low status, they are considered unworthy of any sort of provision by Hindu society. This translates into frequent joblessness, lack of education and lifelong poverty. Traditional high-status members will even avoid their shadow.
Their main occupation is manufacturing shoes and chappals from finished leather. Besides this, they are engaged in daily-wage labor and petty business. Day labor and petty business are also main sources of income, along with the manufacture of shoes and chappal, an Indian sandal. The origins of the name "chamar" come from their leather work. Women are also involved in agricultural work, animal husbandry and various economic activities. The Bhambi Khalpa community repairs musical instruments like dhol and nagara which are played in the temples during worship.
The Chamar practice monogamy (one husband, one wife) in marriage. Dowry is largely prevalent and is paid in cash and kind. Remarriage is allowed for widowers but not for the widows. The dead body of a bachelor is buried lying on its back with the head facing the south, whereas others are cremated, and their mortal remains are immersed in sacred water. Rice balls are offered to the dead and to ancestors on the tenth day after death.


What Are Their Beliefs?

Even in Muslim Pakistan the Chamar are Hindu. They belong to the Shiva and Bhagvat sects. Their deities are Bahiroba, Janai, Kandova of Jejori and Bhawani of Tuljapur. They follow the spiritual teachings of Ravidas. They recite mythological tales and sing songs from the religious epics. They celebrate the festivals such as Diwali, Panchami, Ganesh Chaturthi, Kartik, Holi and Hannami.
There is a slightly higher degree of responsiveness to the gospel among the Chamars than among other low status groups. There is a church planting movement underway among Chamars in several districts across India.


What Are Their Needs?

The religious system is a key part of their identity, leaving no room in their hearts for Jesus Christ.


Prayer Points

For the salvation of the Chamar people and that God may send several Christian workers among them and meet their spiritual and physical needs.
Pray that Chamar believers will be salt and light to Chamar communities throughout Pakistan.
Pray that church planting will grow across all Chamar communities.
Pray for more workers to enter the Chamar harvest.


Scripture Prayers for the Chamar (Hindu traditions) in Pakistan.


References

India Missions Association - Edited by Philipose Vaidyar Copyrighted © Used with permission


Profile Source:   Joshua Project  

People Name General Chamar (Hindu traditions)
People Name in Country Chamar (Hindu traditions)
Pronunciation chah-MAR
Alternate Names Ahirwar; Arya; Asadaro; Asodi; Bagri; Bhambi; Bola; Budhan; Chamadollu; Chamana; Chambada; Chambhar. Moci; Chamehar; Chamling; Changar; Chanial; Charmakar Rishi; Chembadi; Chemidi; Chitrakar; Das; Dhakaro; Dhekaru; Dhusia; Dohar; Dohare; Gangaputrulu; Golia; Haralayya; Harijan; Jaiswar; Jata Chamar; Jatav; Jatia; Jatia Chamar; Khalpa; Kureel; Laskaria Raigar; Lingayat; Machigar; Mehtar; Mochi; Moci; Mocia; Muchia; Muci; Natarlu; Parvatharaja kulam; Raidasi; Raigar; Raighar; Ram; Ramdasi; Raudari; Ravidasi; Regar; Rehgar; Rohit; Ruidas; Shankhwar; Sindhi Jatia; चामर (हिंदू ट्रेडिशन्स)
Population this Country 58,000
Population all Countries 55,325,000
Total Countries 4
Indigenous Yes
Progress Scale 1
Unreached Yes
Frontier People Group No
Pioneer Workers Needed 1
People ID 16561
ROP3 Code 111752
ROP25 Code 301655
ROP25 Name Chamar
Country Pakistan
Region Asia, South
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 7  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States on file 3
Largest States
Sindh
28,000
Punjab
28,000
Balochistan
700
Country Pakistan
Region Asia, South
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 7  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States 3
  Sindh 28,000
  Punjab 28,000
  Balochistan 700
Website South Asia Peoples
Primary Religion: Hinduism
Major Religion Percent *
Buddhism
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical Unknown)
1.13 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
Hinduism
98.87 %
Islam
0.00 %
Non-Religious
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
Unknown
0.00 %
* From latest Pakistan census data.
Current Christian values may substantially differ.
Primary Language Sindhi (22,000 speakers)
Language Code snd   Ethnologue Listing
Language Written Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages 8
Secondary Languages
Saraiki
21,000
Marwari (Pakistan)
6,000
Dhatki
4,800
Punjabi, Western
2,100
Kacchi
400
Urdu
200
Goaria
30
Primary Language Sindhi (22,000 speakers)
Language Code snd   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages 8
Secondary Languages
  Saraiki 21,000
  Marwari (Pakistan) 6,000
  Dhatki 4,800
  Punjabi, Western 2,100
  Kacchi 400
  Urdu 200
  Goaria 30
People Groups Speaking Sindhi

Primary Language:  Sindhi

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible-Portions Yes  (1825-1981)
Bible-New Testament Yes  (1890-1992)
Bible-Complete Yes  (1954)
FCBH NT (www.bible.is) Online
YouVersion NT (www.bible.com) Online
Possible Print Bibles
Amazon
World Bibles
Forum Bible Agencies
National Bible Societies
World Bible Finder
Virtual Storehouse
Resource Type Resource Name Source
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching Global Recordings Network
Audio Recordings Recorded oral Bible Oral Bibles
Audio Recordings Story of Jesus audio Jesus Film Project
Film / Video Indigitube.tv Video / Animation Create International
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Sindhi Jesus Film Project
Film / Video Magdalena video Jesus Film Project
Film / Video The Hope Video Mars Hill Media
Film / Video World Christian Videos World Christian Videos
General Bible for Children Bible for Children
General Biblical answers to your questions Got Questions Ministry
General Faith Comes By Hearing - Bible in text or audio or video Faith Comes by Hearing
General Faith Comes By Hearing - Bible in text or audio or video Faith Comes by Hearing
General Gospel website in this language General / Other
General Scripture Earth Gospel resources links Scripture Earth
General YouVersion Bible versions in text and/or audio YouVersion Bibles
Mobile App Android Bible app: Sindhi YouVersion Bibles
Mobile App Download audio Bible app as APK file Faith Comes by Hearing
Mobile App iOS Bible app: Sindhi YouVersion Bibles
Text / Printed Matter Literacy primer for Sindhi Literacy & Evangelism International
Text / Printed Matter Topical Scripture booklets and Bible studies World Missionary Press
Photo Source Anonymous 
Map Source People Group data: Omid. Map geography: UNESCO / GMI. Map Design: Joshua Project.  
Profile Source Joshua Project 
Data Sources Data is compiled from various sources. Learn more.



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