Penghulu in Indonesia

Joshua Project has identified the Penghulu only in Indonesia
Population
32,000
Christian
Evangelical
Largest Religion
Main Language
Progress
Progress Gauge

Introduction / History

The Penghulu tribe is one of the ethnic groups regarded as original inhabitants of the Jambi Province in Sumatra. They live in the Sarolangun Bangko regency, mainly in the Batang Asai, Ulu Tabir and Sungaimanau subdistricts. Some also live in the Bungo Tebo regency. It is thought that this group came from West Sumatra to Jambi in the 15th century. They came as gold seekers. They are believed to be part of the "Old Malays" due to their physical characteristics. On the whole, they tend to be shorter than other ethnic groups in the area, who belong to the "Recent Malay" ethnic groups. In accordance with the area they came from, their language is a mixture of the Minangkabau language and the Jambi Malay language.


What Are Their Lives Like?

Their main livelihood is cultivating rice paddies and non-irrigated fields. Besides planting rice, they also cultivate rubber, cinnamon and coffee. Some of the people have developed a livelihood by traditional gold mining. The main gold mining activity is around the Sungaimanau and Batang Asai areas. Other means of livelihood include gathering forest products, like wood and rattan. They also produce woven handicrafts consisting of balls, floor mats, baskets, bowls and winnowing trays. Additionally, the Penghulu also make metalwork handicrafts such as knives, axes, cleavers and adzes. One tradition important to the Penghulu is co-op group work, for example fellow villagers will help prepare or work a rice field at planting or harvest time. This kind of work involves almost every member of the village. Penghulu settlements are typically clustered along a road or riverbank. Homes are built very close together. In times past, these villages formed a tightknit community called a "marga". A marga was led by the village chief. The nuclear family is called a "kalbu". Many kalbu joined together form a clan, which is led by a Tua Tengganai (clan elder). A Tua Tengganai has the responsibility to supervise the members of his clan and resolve problems that arise among the clan members. The Penghulu are led by a board of elders (ninik mamak) with representatives from each extended family.


What Are Their Beliefs?

Though in general the Penghulu are Muslims, they still cling to traditional animistic beliefs for everyday life. They believe that strong spirits inhabit sacred sites. Some are still in the habit of giving offerings to appease the spirits. Many people seek help from the shaman for daily needs like treating the sick or casting out evil spirits.


What Are Their Needs?

The Penghulu need help in becoming better equipped to develop their natural resources (forestry as well as gold mining) so that the products can be processed in a way that yields the best balance of financial profit and social welfare. They also need capital to increase their agricultural yields. Educationally, the Penghulu need to increase their skills to support development of their area.


Profile Source:   IPN, 2011   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  

People Name General Penghulu
People Name in Country Penghulu
Population in Indonesia 32,000
World Population 32,000
Total Countries 1
Indigenous Yes
Least-Reached Yes
Progress Scale 1
GSEC 1  (per PeopleGroups.org)
Alternate Names Jambi, Riau
People ID 14362
ROP3 Code 107973
Country Indonesia
Region Southeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 43  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Widespread in the Indonesian Archipelago; west central Sumatra, Padang area. Nearly half live outside central Sumatra; South Sumatra, west coast Mukomuko area   Source:  Ethnologue 2010
Country Indonesia
Region Southeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 43  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Widespread in the Indonesian Archipelago; west central Sumatra, Padang area. Nearly half live outside central Sumatra; South Sumatra, west coast Mukomuko area.   Source:  Ethnologue 2010
Primary Language: Minangkabau (32,000 speakers)   People group listing
Language Code: min   Ethnologue Listing
Written: Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages: 1
Primary Language: Minangkabau (32,000 speakers)   People group listing
Language Code: min   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
Primary Language: Minangkabau

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions Yes   (1980-1990)
New Testament Yes   (1996)
Complete Bible No
Audio Bible Online
 
Possible Print Bibles
Amazon
Forum of Bible Agencies
Gospel Go
World Bible Finder
World Bibles
Resource Type Resource Name
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio Recordings Online New Testament (FCBH)
Audio Recordings Story of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video Finding True Peace (Indigitube.tv)
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Minangkabau
Text / Printed Matter Bible: Today's Malay Version
Text / Printed Matter Bible: Today's Malay Version with Deuterocanonicals
Primary Religion: Islam

Major Religion Percent
Buddhism
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
Hinduism
0.00 %
Islam
100.00 %
Non-Religious
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
Unknown
0.00 %
Christian Segments Percent
Anglican
Unknown
Independent
Unknown
Orthodox
Unknown
Other Christian
Unknown
Protestant
Unknown
Roman Catholic
Unknown
Photo Source: IPN   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Map Source: IPN   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Profile Source: IPN, 2011   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more


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