The Pashtun have been called the largest Muslim tribal society in the world. There are at least 30 major tribes, and countless sub-tribes and clans. Spread over a vast geographical area and driven by socio-economic, political, tribal and linguistic (dialectical) differences, Pashtuns nevertheless share a unique sense of common identity. Pashtun identity is based on four elements: Heritage (descent from a common ancestor); Islam (99.9% Muslim); the Pashtunwali Code of Honor ("The Way of the Pashtun"); and to some extent, Language (Pakhtu or Pashto). They live primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan, though there is a significant Pashtun diaspora in the Arab Gulf, especially the UAE, and many Western countries such as Ukraine.
There have been efforts to reach the Pashtun since 1818, when William Carey translated parts of the Old Testament into Pakhto, based on interaction with Pashtun traders who caravanned (and settled) across north India and beyond. (In South Asia, the name "Pashtun/Pakhtun" was anglicized to "Pathan"—a name immortalized in Rudyard Kipling’s novels and British colonial history; today, the Pashtun in India, Bangladesh, and throughout South Asia are known as "Pathan".) The first intentional mission to the Pashtun was launched by the Church Missionary Society in Peshawar, Pakistan in 1853. This was followed by over 150 years of faithful witness, through mission hospitals, schools, colleges, literature, friendship evangelism, and other forms of witness by national Pakistani (Punjabi) Christians and expatriate missionaries. Despite this record and the slow but growing number of scattered Pashtun believers, a vibrant, indigenous, disciple-making movement has yet to take root and spread.
More significant than dialectical differences, a Pashtun’s primary loyalty is to his particular social group (tribe or sub-tribe). The Pashtun were the traditional rulers of Afghanistan for over 250 years. Since the overthrow of the Afghan king, communist coup and Soviet invasion in the 1970s, Afghanistan has been in a state of constant conflict. In the 1970’s and 1980’s, the Pakistan-Afghanistan borderlands were the launchpad for mujahideen ("freedom fighters") who, with Western, Saudi, and global support, resisted and overthrew the communist regime. The cost was high; over 3.5 million refugees settled into hundreds of refugee camps in border provinces of Iran and Pakistan and one-third of the Pashtun population was displaced.
During the 1990’s, Pashtun tribal areas and thousands of Arab-funded madrassas (religious schools) throughout Pakistan, became the seedbed for the rise of the Taliban movement. Driven by a combination of religious zeal and Pashtun nationalism, and fueled by Arab money, the "Taliban" (a term for "religious students") imposed a harsh, hyper-conservative (Wahabi) version of Islam on the country. Unfortunately, attempts toward a peace accord and durable central government have, to date, been unsuccessful. Armed opposition continues. As a result, there is a steady stream of Pashtuns leaving their homeland for safer countries. Since things are not always safe in Ukraine, there are not many Pashtuns arriving there.
The majority of Pashtun live in Pakistan, but there are some in many other countries as well. You can find them in other Central Asian countries like Iran, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan. They live in many industrialized nations, including Ukraine, where there is a small population of them.
Instability, endemic corruption, and on-going violence led to widespread migration of tens of thousands of Afghans (mainly young men) seeking jobs and opportunity in Russia, Europe, and the West.
Whether they are new in Western countries or they have never been to the original Pashtun homeland, Pashtuns almost always identify themselves as Muslims. They will be married in a mosque, and to be associated with another religious system would be unacceptable in their community. Those who want to take Christ to the Pashtuns will need to do just that; take Christ to them, not a religious system.
The Pashtunwali Code of Honor erodes among Pashtuns who live in urban settings like Kiev. Some of them have only a weak identity as Muslims or as Pashtuns. They need to find their identity in the Savior who loves them and wants them to be transformed into His likeness.
No one knows how many Pashtuns are following Jesus. Seeds of the Gospel have been sown widely. The greatest barriers to faith are social and cultural, leaving us with the challenge of allowing Pashtuns to embrace Christ while keeping their culture and traditions. Those who are in Western nations have a tremendous opportunity to embrace the Savior, but, like other immigrants, they are most open only soon after they arrive. If the job is postponed for more than a year or two, the opportunity is lost.
* Scripture Prayers for the Pashtun, Southern in Ukraine.
* Pray for the Church in Ukraine to strengthen their effort to reach unreached peoples in their midst.
* Pray for a movement to Christ among the Pashtuns Diaspora that will spread far and wide.
* Pray for the production and distribution of all forms of media in the Pashto language for the Pashtun Diaspora.
* Pray for more workers to live among the Pashtuns and work beside them, giving them the opportunity to tell them about Jesus Christ, the Savior of all nations.
* Pray for God’s Spirit to strengthen and protect new believers and to empower them to take Christ to other Pashtun communities.
|Profile Source: Keith Carey|
|Expanded PDF Profile|
|People Name General||Pashtun, Southern|
|People Name in Country||Pashtun, Southern|
|Natural Name||Southern Pashtun|
|Progress Scale||1 ●|
|Frontier People Group||Yes|
|Pioneer Workers Needed||1|
|Alternate Names||Afghan; Afghan Pathan; Khan; Pashto; Pashtun; Pathan; Pukhtun; Pushtun|
|Primary Language||Pashto, Southern (900 speakers)|
|Language Code||pbt Ethnologue Listing|
|Language Written||Yes ScriptSource Listing|
Primary Language: Pashto, Southern
|Bible Translation ▲||Status (Years)|
|Possible Print Bibles|
|Forum Bible Agencies|
|National Bible Societies|
|World Bible Finder|
|Resource Type ▲||Resource Name|
|Audio Recordings||Audio Bible teaching (GRN)|
|Audio Recordings||General Ministry Resources|
|Audio Recordings||Pashto Radio|
|Film / Video||God's Love Story|
|Film / Video||Indigitube.tv Video / Animation|
|Film / Video||Jesus Film: view in Pashto, Southern|
|Film / Video||Magdalena (Jesus Film Project)|
|Film / Video||The Prophets' Story|
|Text / Printed Matter||Online Bible text (Scripture Earth)|
|Major Religion ▲||Percent|
|Christianity (Evangelical 0.00 %)||
|Other / Small||
|Christian Segments ▲||Percent|