Gujar, Muslim traditions in Pakistan






Largest Religion

Main Language


Introduction / History

The Gujur are comprised of three very closely related people groups that are known collectively as the "Gujur Rajasthani." They are located in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and several states in northeastern India (Himachal, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu, Kashmir, and Rajasthan). In addition, the Gujarat district of western India is named after the historic Gujur peoples.

As various Muslim groups began invading India and Pakistan in the eleventh century, the Gujur Hindus converted to Islam. When this happened, their resentful Hindu neighbors began to rise up and take control of the area. The Gujur were forced to leave the region and search for good pastures elsewhere. Their wanderings took them into Pakistan and Afghanistan, where thousands have remained until this day.

The partition of Pakistan and India in 1947 also caused many tribal migrations. Masses of Muslims immigrated to Pakistan, while the Hindus flocked to India.

What Are Their Lives Like?

Ever since their conversion to Islam in the eleventh century, the Gujur have been bound by a life of poverty, illiteracy, and social oppression. In general, they are a simple, inoffensive people with a generous, hospitable nature. Today, most of the Gujur living in India live as law-abiding shepherds and farmers. Unfortunately, they are still belittled by those of higher castes (social classes), and often labeled as thieves and vagrants.

The Gujur living in the mountain forests of northeastern India raise buffalo. Unfortunately, the Indian government has imposed regulations on the number of buffalo a family can keep, and on how long they can live in the forests. This has been distressing for the Gujur, since this is their main source of income. For this reason, these nomads are constantly searching for new pastures for their herds.

The Gujur nomads who live in the state of Kashmir are often cheated by the middlemen who take their agricultural products to the city markets and sell them as their own.

The Gujur castes are broadly divided along religious and geographic lines into two groups: the Muslim Gujur and the Hindu Gujur. The Muslims are seasonal nomads who live in windowless, one-room houses during sedentary growing seasons; whereas, the Hindus are settled farmers who live in the same place all year.

Most of the Gujur in Afghanistan are gypsy-like groups who earn their living as tinkers (traveling menders of household goods), musicians, tradesmen, or fortune-tellers. Many are extremely poor and have resorted to begging and crime. Others are nomadic goat herders who travel the eastern valleys during the summer months. Unfortunately, conflicts between Afghanistan and Russia in recent years have damaged the economy for those who work in agriculture and trade.

The Gujur living in the forested mountain regions usually build their homes in clearings along the mountain fringes. The dwellings have one, two, or three rooms and are built with flat roofs. In contrast, the homes of those living in Kashmir typically have angular roofs. Since they cook inside over open fires, their homes are often dark and smoky.

The Gujur are divided into hundreds of clans. Their societies are patrilineal, which means that inheritances are passed down through the males. Marriages are usually arranged by the parents, and a "bride price" of either cash or buffalo is paid to the girl's family. They are permitted to marry outside their clans, and young couples generally live near the grooms' parents.

All three Gujur groups speak Gujuri, an Indo-Aryan language. This common factor has helped to identify them as a distinct sub-group. The Gujur of Afghanistan also speak Pashto and/or Dari, which are Persian languages and are spoken by the majority of the Afghani population.

What Are Their Beliefs?

A majority of the Gujur are Muslims; however, those who are Hindus have greatly influenced the others. For instance, most Gujur have copies of the Koran in their homes. In spite of that, they may also worship a "family deity" and observe some of the traditional Hindu feasts such as Holi.

Because the Muslim Gujur share Hindu customs, they are not generally accepted by other Muslims. Nevertheless, in their desire for a unified front against the Hindus, the Muslim Kashmiri have agreed to accept the nomadic Gujur Muslims who recently entered Kashmir.

What Are Their Needs?

The Gujur have long been hidden away and forgotten by most of the world. The governments of the countries where they live can be hostile to any form of proselytizing; and so government restrictions apply, but most of the time Christians can follow their religion. There are more problems from family members than from the government.

Prayer Points

* Ask the Lord to send forth laborers to share Christ with the Gujur.
* Pray that God will encourage the small number of Gujur believers and give them a vision to reach their own people.
* Ask God to send Christian teachers to live and work among the Gujur.
* Ask the Holy Spirit to soften the hearts of the Gujur so that they will be receptive to the Gospel.
* Pray that God will open the hearts of the governmental leaders to the Gospel.

Profile Source:   Bethany World Prayer Center  

Prayer Links
Global Prayer Digest: 2011-04-30
People Name General Gujar, Muslim traditions
People Name in Country Gujar, Muslim traditions
Population in Pakistan 4,611,000
World Population 5,079,000
Countries 3
Progress Scale 1.1
Least-Reached Yes
Indigenous Yes
Alternate Names Gujar, Gurjar
Affinity Bloc South Asian Peoples
People Cluster Punjabi
People Name General Gujar, Muslim traditions
Ethnic Code CNN25o
People ID 17549
Country Pakistan
Region South Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 8  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Kashmir.   Source:  Joshua Project
Total States on file:  6  (up to 20 largest shown)
Punjab (2,568,000) Sindh (1,950,000) Islamabad (62,000) Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (26,000)
Balochistan (3,700) Federally Administer (300)
Total States on file:  6  (up to 20 largest shown)
Punjab (2,568,000) Sindh (1,950,000)
Islamabad (62,000) Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (26,000)
Balochistan (3,700) Federally Administer (300)
Languages & Dialects on file:  21  (up to 20 largest shown)
Panjabi, Western (2,271,000) Sindhi (1,121,000) Saraiki (453,000) Urdu (435,000)
Dhatki (24,000) Bagri (21,000) Koli, Parkari (20,000) Hindko, Southern (11,000)
Koli, Wadiyara (9,900) Hindko, Northern (8,200) Jadgali (4,500) Gurgula (2,800)
Kachchi (2,300) Ghera (2,300) Shina, Kohistani (1,200) Kabutra (800)
Jandavra (600) Waneci (100) Pashto, Central (100) Bhaya (70)
Languages & Dialects (speakers if known) - up to 20 shown
Panjabi, Western 2,271,000 Sindhi 1,121,000
Saraiki 453,000 Urdu 435,000
Dhatki 24,000 Bagri 21,000
Koli, Parkari 20,000 Hindko, Southern 11,000
Koli, Wadiyara 9,900 Hindko, Northern 8,200
Jadgali 4,500 Gurgula 2,800
Kachchi 2,300 Ghera 2,300
Shina, Kohistani 1,200 Kabutra 800
Jandavra 600 Waneci 100
Pashto, Central 100 Bhaya 70
For Primary Language: Panjabi, Western

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions Yes   (1885-1922)
New Testament Yes   (1819-2000)
Complete Bible No
Audio Bible Online
Resource Format
Audio Bible teaching (GRN) Audio Recordings
Bible-in-Your-Language Text / Printed Matter
Bibles, Bible League Text / Printed Matter
Cartoon Gospel tract Text / Printed Matter
EasyBibles Text / Printed Matter
EasyBibles Text / Printed Matter
Fathers Love Letter Audio Recordings
Four Spiritual Laws General
Got Questions Ministry General
Jesus Film: view in Panjabi, Western Film / Video
Online New Testament (FCBH) Audio Recordings
Online Scripture / Bible Audio Recordings
Punjabi Bible stories Audio Recordings
Story of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project) Audio Recordings
Primary Religion: Islam

Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
0.00 %
100.00 %
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %

Christian Segments Percent
0.0 %
0.0 %
0.0 %
Other Christian
0.0 %
0.0 %
Roman Catholic
0.0 %
Photo Source: Matt Brandon   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Map Source: Omid / Joshua Project / Global Mapping Intl  
Profile Source: Bethany World Prayer Center  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more

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