Penghulu in Indonesia

Joshua Project has identified the Penghulu only in Indonesia






Largest Religion

Main Language


Introduction / History

The Penghulu tribe is one of the ethnic groups regarded as original inhabitants of the Jambi Province in Sumatra. They live in the Sarolangun Bangko regency, mainly in the Batang Asai, Ulu Tabir and Sungaimanau subdistricts. Some also live in the Bungo Tebo regency. It is thought that this group came from West Sumatra to Jambi in the 15th century. They came as gold seekers. They are believed to be part of the "Old Malays" due to their physical characteristics. On the whole, they tend to be shorter than other ethnic groups in the area, who belong to the "Recent Malay" ethnic groups. In accordance with the area they came from, their language is a mixture of the Minangkabau language and the Jambi Malay language.

What Are Their Lives Like?

Their main livelihood is cultivating rice paddies and non-irrigated fields. Besides planting rice, they also cultivate rubber, cinnamon and coffee. Some of the people have developed a livelihood by traditional gold mining. The main gold mining activity is around the Sungaimanau and Batang Asai areas. Other means of livelihood include gathering forest products, like wood and rattan. They also produce woven handicrafts consisting of balls, floor mats, baskets, bowls and winnowing trays. Additionally, the Penghulu also make metalwork handicrafts such as knives, axes, cleavers and adzes. One tradition important to the Penghulu is co-op group work, for example fellow villagers will help prepare or work a rice field at planting or harvest time. This kind of work involves almost every member of the village. Penghulu settlements are typically clustered along a road or riverbank. Homes are built very close together. In times past, these villages formed a tightknit community called a "marga". A marga was led by the village chief. The nuclear family is called a "kalbu". Many kalbu joined together form a clan, which is led by a Tua Tengganai (clan elder). A Tua Tengganai has the responsibility to supervise the members of his clan and resolve problems that arise among the clan members. The Penghulu are led by a board of elders (ninik mamak) with representatives from each extended family.

What Are Their Beliefs?

Though in general the Penghulu are Muslims, they still cling to traditional animistic beliefs for everyday life. They believe that strong spirits inhabit sacred sites. Some are still in the habit of giving offerings to appease the spirits. Many people seek help from the shaman for daily needs like treating the sick or casting out evil spirits.

What Are Their Needs?

The Penghulu need help in becoming better equipped to develop their natural resources (forestry as well as gold mining) so that the products can be processed in a way that yields the best balance of financial profit and social welfare. They also need capital to increase their agricultural yields. Educationally, the Penghulu need to increase their skills to support development of their area.

Profile Source:   IPN, 2011   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  

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People Name General Penghulu
People Name in Country Penghulu
Population in Indonesia 31,000
World Population 31,000
Countries 1
Progress Scale 1.1
Least-Reached Yes
Indigenous Yes
Alternate Names Jambi, Riau
Affinity Bloc Malay Peoples
People Cluster Melayu of Sumatra
People Name General Penghulu
Ethnic Code MSY44k
People ID 14362
Country Indonesia
Region Southeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 47  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Widespread in the Indonesian Archipelago; west central Sumatra, Padang area. Nearly half live outside central Sumatra; South Sumatra, west coast Mukomuko area.   Source:  Ethnologue 2010
Languages & Dialects on file:  1  (up to 20 largest shown)
Minangkabau (31,000)
Languages & Dialects (speakers if known) - up to 20 shown
Minangkabau 31,000
For Primary Language: Minangkabau

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions Yes   (1980-1990)
New Testament Yes   (1996)
Complete Bible No
Audio Bible Online
Resource Format
Audio Bible teaching (GRN) Audio Recordings
Bible: Today's Malay Version Text / Printed Matter
Bible: Today's Malay Version with Deuterocanonicals Text / Printed Matter
Jesus Film: view in Minangkabau Film / Video
Minang Language Film Film / Video
Online New Testament (FCBH) Audio Recordings
Story of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project) Audio Recordings
Primary Religion: Islam

Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
0.00 %
100.00 %
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %

Christian Segments Percent
0.0 %
0.0 %
0.0 %
Other Christian
0.0 %
0.0 %
Roman Catholic
0.0 %
Photo Source: IPN   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Map Source: IPN   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Video Source: Create International
Profile Source: IPN, 2011   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more

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