Ewenki, Tungus in China





Largest Religion

Main Language



The Tungus Ewenki - also known as the Khamnigan Ewenki - are one of four people groups combined to form the official Ewenki nationality in China. Each group speaks a different language and has varying customs. It is believed that the Ewenki were originally tribes or clans in Russia who migrated into China at different times 300 to 400 years ago.

Approximately 1,000 of the 1,600 Tungus Ewenki are able to speak their language. One scholar describes the language as "endangered in China and possibly extinct in Mongolia and Russia." For now, it is still spoken in the homes of two-thirds of Tungus Ewenki children, most of whom can also speak the local variety of Mongolian and Chinese.


The forefathers of the Ewenki lived in the forests north and east of Lake Baikal in Siberia and along the upper reaches of the Heilong River. They had a close relationship with the Northern Shiweis during the Northern Wei Dynasty (AD 386-534) and the Ju tribe at the time of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). "In the mid-1600s, aggression by Tsarist Russia led the Qing government in China to move the Ewenkis to the area around the tributaries of the Nenjiang River in the Hinggan Mountains. In 1732, 1,600 Ewenki soldiers and their dependents were moved to the Hulunbuir grasslands."


The Tungus Ewenki live in nimor, or clans, which are groups of three to ten blood families. Some Tungus Ewenki live deep within the forests. Others have chosen to live on the grasslands where they have been influenced by Mongolian culture.


Many of the Tungus Ewenki who have experienced prolonged interaction with Mongolians have been converted to Tibetan Buddhism. The remainder practice shamanism, an ancient form of witchcraft and spiritism. The Tungus are also the only Ewenki group in China known to contain Christians.


Various sources agree that there are approximately 100 Ewenki Christians in Chenbaehru. The Tungus Ewenki believers are members of the Eastern Orthodox Church. However, "because of the profound influence of Shamanism, they worship the statue of Jesus and other idols together. Priests of the Eastern Orthodox Church also participate in the religious activities of the Ewenkis."

Profile Source:   Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  

People Name General Ewenki, Solon (E-wenk-ee, Sor-lon)
People Name in Country Ewenki, Tungus
Population in China 2,600
World Population 41,000
Countries 3
Progress Scale 3.1
Least-Reached No
Indigenous Yes
Alternate Names Evenki, Evenks, Ewenke, Ewenki, Manchurian Solon, Owenke, Solon, Solon Evenki, Suolun, Tungus
Affinity Bloc Turkic Peoples
People Cluster Altaic
People Name General Ewenki, Solon (E-wenk-ee, Sor-lon)
Ethnic Code MSY41i
People ID 18453
Country China
Region Northeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 29  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country The Solon Ewenki are the largest of the four Ewenki groups in China. They account for approximately 80% of all Ewenki in China, which amounts to more than 21,000 of the total 1990 census figure of 26,300 for the Ewenki nationality. The Ewenki are also found in Russia and Mongolia. They have survived for centuries in the harsh temperatures of north Asian winters. The Solon Ewenki primarily inhabit the Morindawa, Oroqen, and Arong Banners in the eastern part of Inner Mongolia. There they live alongside Mongols, Daur, and Oroqen. It is a beautiful region, with more than 600 lakes and freshwater springs located among the pasture lands and woods of the Greater Hinggan Mountains. A small number of Solon Ewenki also live in Nehe County in Heilongjiang..   Source:  Operation China, 2000
Languages & Dialects on file:  1  (up to 20 largest shown)
Evenki: Chenba'erhu
Languages & Dialects (speakers if known) - up to 20 shown
Evenki: Chenba'erhu
For Primary Language: Evenki

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions Yes   (1995)
New Testament No
Complete Bible No
Resource Format
Audio Bible teaching (GRN) Audio Recordings
Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions

Major Religion Percent
40.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 4.85 %)
6.00 %
Ethnic Religions
45.00 %
0.00 %
0.00 %
9.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %

Christian Segments Percent
0.0 %
10.0 %
90.0 %
Other Christian
0.0 %
0.0 %
Roman Catholic
0.0 %
Photo Source: Operation China, Paul Hattaway   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Map Source: Bethany World Prayer Center  
Profile Source: Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more

Copyright © 2015 Joshua Project.  A ministry of Frontier Ventures.