Turk in Bulgaria

Largest Religion
Main Language
Progress Gauge

Introduction / History

The Rumelian Turk are descendants of the Ottoman Turks who migrated from Central Asia during the thirteenth century, conquered Anatolia (modern day Turkey), and eventually established the Ottoman Empire. At its peak, the Ottoman Empire encompassed the Balkan Mountains, Arabia, and North Africa.

The nearly five hundred years of Ottoman-Turkish dominion significantly impacted the Bulgarian language, culture, and economic development. The large Turkish minority in Bulgaria and the strained relations between the Bulgarians and the Turks-both individually and nationally-are partly the consequences of this period.

Since Bulgaria's independence in 1878, thousands of Turks have migrated back to Turkey. The remaining Turkish community has suffered growing discrimination and resentment by the Bulgarian population.

What Are Their Lives Like?

During the Communist rule in Bulgaria (from 1947 to 1989), Muslim Turk, with their "outdated" religious customs, were considered an obstacle to a modern industrialized society. From 1984 to 1989, the Communist government carried out a bitter persecution program against the Turk, forcing them to take Bulgarian names, destroying Muslim sections in cemeteries, and forbidding Islamic religious practices. Thousands were beaten, imprisoned, or killed. At the height of the persecution in 1989, an additional 350,000 Turk fled to Turkey, overwhelming that country with refugees at a time of high unemployment.

Since the collapse of Communism in 1990, the Rumelian Turk have enjoyed greater freedom and the Muslim community has returned to some of its old customs. Today, the Turkish Party holds the balance of power in a parliament where Democrats and Socialists (ex-Communist Party) fight for influence.

The end of the Soviet Union (formerly Bulgaria's main trading partner) and the trade embargo against Iraq have profoundly affected the export-oriented agricultural business, which is where most of the Rumelian Turk now work.

Historically, the Turk settled in towns and served as military personnel or administrators, or worked as craftsmen. Because of religious, linguistic, and social differences, the Turk have not often intermarried with the local Bulgarians. When they do intermarry, Turkish men usually marry Muslim, non-Turkish women. The Turk favor dishes made with lamb and vegetables. They also enjoy milk products such as yogurt and cheeses, as well as strong Turkish coffee.

What Are Their Beliefs?

Most of the Rumelian Turk in Bulgaria are Hanafite Muslim, even though the Communists closed most of their mosques and converted them into schools, libraries, museums, and government buildings. Today, the mosques are being restored and rebuilt. Financial support from Turkey and Saudi Arabia has enabled the Rumelian Turk to build Islamic schools and finance the training of Muslim teachers. Although Muslim missionaries from Turkey and Iran are endeavoring to make the Rumelian Turk stronger Muslims, many Turk consider themselves secularists or atheists because they are frustrated with Islamic fundamentalism, corruption, and hypocrisy.

What Are Their Needs?

The Communist government trampled on the culture and traditions of the Rumelian Turk, denied their existence, and prohibited their religious practices, all of which made the Turk treasure their Turkish language and culture even more. Most Turk are bitter also against what they see as "Christian" attempts to make them forsake Islam by force. An obvious sign of concern and love would be for Christians to learn their language and communicate God's Truth with it.

Although the Bible is available in the Turkish language, a high illiteracy rate (especially among women) hinders the opportunity to reach the Turk with the Scriptures. Perhaps Christian teachers will have the greatest opportunity to minister the love of Jesus to these hurting people.

Prayer Points

* Pray that God will raise up prayer teams who will begin breaking up the spiritual soil of Bulgaria through worship and intercession.
* Ask God to grant wisdom and favor to missions agencies focusing on the Rumelian Turk.
* Pray for effectiveness of the Jesus film among the Rumelian Turk.
* Ask God to anoint the Gospel as it goes forth via radio to these hurting people.
* Ask the Holy Spirit to soften the hearts of the Rumelian Turk towards Christians so they will be receptive to the Gospel.
* Ask the Lord to bring forth a triumphant Rumelian Turk church in Bulgaria for the glory of His name!

Profile Source:   Bethany World Prayer Center  

Prayer Links:
Global Prayer Digest: 2007-02-20
Global Prayer Digest: 2012-03-23
People Name General Turk
People Name in Country Turk
Population in Bulgaria 566,000
World Population 57,158,000
Total Countries 71
Indigenous No
Progress Scale 1.1
Least-Reached Yes
GSEC 2  (per PeopleGroups.org)
Alternate Names Anatolian, Baharlu Turk, Masakhastian, Meskhetian Turk, Osmanli, Ottomon Turk, Rumelian Turk, Urum
People ID 18274
Country Bulgaria
Region Eastern Europe and Eurasia
Continent Europe
10/40 Window No
Persecution Rank Not ranked
Location in Country South, Kurdzhali Province and neighboring areas, along the Danube; various regions east.   Source:  Ethnologue 2010
Country Bulgaria
Region Eastern Europe and Eurasia
Continent Europe
10/40 Window No
Persecution Rank Not ranked
Location in Country South, Kurdzhali Province and neighboring areas, along the Danube; various regions east.   Source:  Ethnologue 2010
Primary Language: Turkish (0 speakers)
Language Code: tur   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
Primary Language: Turkish (0 speakers)
Language Code: tur   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages: 1
Secondary Languages:
For Primary Language: Turkish

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions Yes   (1782-1985)
New Testament Yes   (1819-1993)
Complete Bible Yes   (1827-2006)
Audio Bible Online
Possible Print Bibles
Forum of Bible Agencies
Gospel Go
World Bible Finder
World Bibles
Resource Type Resource Name
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio Recordings Online New Testament (FCBH)
Audio Recordings Story of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video Bir Ibadet Toplantisi (Indigitube.tv)
Film / Video Fathers Love Letter
Film / Video Followers of Isa (Indigitube.tv)
Film / Video God's Story Video
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Turkish
Film / Video Magdalena (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video More Than Dreams-Ali (Indigitube.tv)
Film / Video My Last Day (Jesus Film Project Anime)
Film / Video Rivka (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video Story of Jesus for Children (JF Project)
Film / Video The Prophets Story (Indigitube.tv)
General Four Spiritual Laws
General GoodSeed
General Got Questions Ministry
Text / Printed Matter Bible-in-Your-Language
Text / Printed Matter Bible: Turkish, Kutsal Kitap Yeni Ceviri
Text / Printed Matter World Missionary Press Booklets
Primary Religion: Islam
Religion Subdivision: Sunni

Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.01 %)
0.10 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
0.00 %
96.00 %
3.90 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %

Christian Segments Percent
0.0 %
0.3 %
99.4 %
Other Christian
0.0 %
0.3 %
Roman Catholic
0.0 %
Photo Source: Charles Fred   Creative Commons  
Map Source: Bethany World Prayer Center  
Profile Source: Bethany World Prayer Center  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more

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