Introduction / History
The Runga comprise one of the Sudanic people groups living in Chad today. Most of the Runga are located in the southern part of the country, but another significant community of them live across the border in the neighboring Central African Republic.
An early agricultural civilization grew up around the headwaters of the Niger River and gradually spread eastward across the entire breadth of the Sudan to the Nile Valley. However, as it spread northward to the edge of the Sahara Desert, it did not penetrate the area where the Negro inhabitants continued to live a nomadic life of hunting and gathering. Only as different varieties of crops were introduced by their northern neighbors did the Negro tribes, such as the Runga, begin to adopt agriculture.
Very little is known about the Runga in particular; thus, some assumptions have been made about their lifestyle and culture, based on groups either related to them or living nearby.
What Are Their Lives Like?
The region where the Runga live was once the final stop for four major Saharan caravan routes. As a result, the region was ruled by a number of strong native states with complex cultures and elaborate political systems.
Today, the Runga are primarily farmers, using hoe cultivation and irrigation techniques. Millet and wheat are the main crops grown, but onions, garlic, and melons are also cultivated. Stock breeding is another important activity for the Runga. Horses, cattle, goats, sheep, and chickens are raised for milk, butter, wool, eggs, meat, sacrifice, and trade. Both men and women participate in the field work, but men alone do the clearing of the land and other heavy work. Men also tend to the animals, trade at local markets, and make family decisions. The women milk the animals, brew a millet beer, and prepare a daily millet-based porridge. They are also responsible for domestic duties, such as caring for the children.
Although some Runga live in large towns in clustered huts, many live in compact rural villages. The huts in the villages are grouped in compounds surrounded by grass mat fences. The houses are usually round, with cone-shaped, thatched roofs.
Runga marriages occur when the men are in their twenties and the women are in their late teens. Polygamy (having more than one wife) prevails but is restricted to the Muslim limit of four wives. When a couple marries, they live with the bride's family for two years then move into their own newly built house. Subsequent wives live in their own huts, but the first wife is "chief" over them.
What Are Their Beliefs?
Most of the Runga accepted Islam around the seventeenth century. Today, the majority of the Runga living in Chad are Sunni Muslims, with the remainder practicing animism (belief that spirits exist in objects and forces of nature).
According to Islam, Allah is viewed as the sole creator and restorer of the world. Muslims teach that man's purpose is to submit to the will of Allah as revealed through the Koran, their holy book. They believe that Allah revealed the messages of the Koran to the prophet Mohammed.
Mysticism plays a large role in Muslim life. Through Sufism, Muslims seek the truth of divine life and knowledge through a personal experience with Allah. This is achieved by repentance, meditation, spiritual changes, and ritual prayers.
Muslims are expected to follow certain moral standards. For example, marriages are strongly encouraged; children are to treat their mothers with tenderness; and chastity in women is of prime importance.
What Are Their Needs?
The Runga have no Christian resources in their own language available to them. There is a great need for Christian broadcasts to be made available to them. Prayer, however, remains the first step to seeing the barriers of resistance broken down.
* Ask the Lord of the harvest to send laborers into Chad to minister Life to the Runga.
* Ask the Holy Spirit to soften the hearts of the Runga so that they will be receptive to the Gospel.
* Ask the Lord to save key leaders among the Runga who will openly profess Jesus as Lord.
* Ask God to raise up prayer teams who will begin breaking up the soil through worship and intercession.
* Pray that strong local churches will be raised up among the Runga.
|Profile Source: Bethany World Prayer Center|