Cao Lan in China






Largest Religion

Main Language



The Cao Lan are officially considered part of the Zhuang nationality in China. They speak a distinct language - different from other Zhuang varieties - and possess their own set of customs and traditions.

Cao Lan is part of the Central Tai linguistic family. "The Cao Lan, a Sinicized group, consists mainly in various areas of the delta of northern Vietnam; it is also found in smaller numbers in China." It is possible that the Cao Lan language in China is what linguists label the Yan-Guang dialect of Southern Zhuang.


The Cao Lan in Vietnam migrated from southern China in the first half of the nineteenth century. Cao Lan communities are divided into various family lineages, each clan having their own peculiar customs and their own protective spirit. The Nung and Cao Lan joined with a powerful Hmong army in northern Vietnam in the 1860s. They took possession of large tracts of land and raided Buddhist temples of their gold. The Cao Lan were deceived into following Sioung - the charismatic, self-proclaimed Hmong king.


Strict morality codes are practiced among the rural Cao Lan. Women must observe strict rules and customs. Whenever a woman encounters a man in a social position superior to her husband's, she is required to hide behind bamboo. The Cao Lan were traditionally buried when they died but, due to a lack of land, the government has recently begun demanding that the dead be cremated instead. Traditionally, when the body was placed in the coffin, seven coins were added for a man and nine for a woman. The coins represent the Khue star which they believe guides the person's soul to his or her ancestors in the other world.


Spirit worship takes a major place in the lives of the Cao Lan population. Each branch of the nationality worships a different spirit such as the spirit of the river, the trees, the crops, etc. Elaborate festivals include the playing of castanets, copper bells, drums, cymbals, and wind instruments.


In China, as well as in Vietnam, the Cao Lan are unreached with the gospel, although 26 families in Vietnam came to Christ in 1999. Very few have had any exposure to the Christian message and the name of Christ remains unknown. Northern Vietnam and southern China have been Communist strongholds for three generations. No Christian ministries or Western mission organizations are known to be focusing on them.

Profile Source:   Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  

People Name General Cao Lan (Cow-Lahn)
People Name in Country Cao Lan
Population in China 50,000
World Population 236,000
Countries 2
Progress Scale 1.1
Least-Reached Yes
Indigenous Yes
Alternate Names Hon Ban, Hon Chung, Sán Chay (CaoLan-SánChi), San Chi, Son Tu
Affinity Bloc Southeast Asian Peoples
People Cluster Tai
People Name General Cao Lan (Cow-Lahn)
Ethnic Code MSY49d
People ID 13474
Country China
Region Northeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 29  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country The Global Evangelization Movement listed a 1995 population of 36,677 Cao Lan in China. In addition, more than 114,000 live in northern Vietnam where they are known as San Chay. The Cao Lan are located along the Yunnan-Vietnam border in Xichou County. In Vietnam they inhabit the lower Red River area, with communities in seven different provinces: Tuyen Quang, Bac Thai, Ha Bac, Quang Ninh, Yen Bai, Lang Son, and Vinh Phu..   Source:  Operation China, 2000
Languages & Dialects on file:  1  (up to 20 largest shown)
Cao Lan (50,000)
Languages & Dialects (speakers if known) - up to 20 shown
Cao Lan 50,000
For Primary Language: Cao Lan

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions No
New Testament No
Complete Bible No
Resource Format
None reported  
Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions

Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
95.00 %
0.00 %
0.00 %
5.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %

Christian Segments Percent
0.0 %
0.0 %
0.0 %
Other Christian
0.0 %
0.0 %
Roman Catholic
0.0 %
Photo Source: Operation China, Paul Hattaway   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Map Source: Bethany World Prayer Center  
Profile Source: Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more

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