Gayo in Indonesia

Joshua Project has identified the Gayo only in Indonesia





Largest Religion

Main Language


Introduction / History

The Gayo live in the isolated central mountains of Aceh province on the island of Sumatera. Their homeland lies in the Bukit Barisan Range ("Parade of Mountains") which has elevations of over 12,000 feet and extends more than one thousand miles. Most Gayo live in the Central Aceh and Southeast Aceh regencies. The Gayo language has four dialects: Lut, Serbejadi-Lukup, Lut and Luwes. Their language does not have a writing system, but folk tales, stories and poetry are passed down in oral tradition. The Gayo are close neighbors to the strongly Islamic Aceh people. In the past, the sultans of Aceh conquered the Gayo region and made the Gayo slaves. After the initial Dutch resistance (during which many Gayo were killed), the Dutch occupied the area from 1904-1942. During this time, the Gayo developed a thriving cash crop economy in vegetables and coffee. During the occupation and during the last several decades of Indonesian independence, the Gayo have gained access to higher levels of education and participated to some degree in the Islamization and modernization of their area.

Where Are they Located?

They live in the and around the Gayo Highlands of Central Aceh. They have also embraced survivors of the Aceh Civil War and the 2004 Tsunami.

What Are Their Lives Like?

Their main source of income is coffee, growing Arabica coffee, which is often referred to as the very best Arabica and Luwak coffee. They are very poor and uneducated. From their traditional dances one can see the root and greatest challenge they face, namely suicide (all ages) due to hopelessness.

What Are Their Beliefs?

Most Gayo are Muslims, but lacking orthodox understanding of the religion. Many Gayo people believe in good and bad spirits and in holy men, both dead and alive. They regularly give ritual offerings and sacrifices to the spirits, to holy men and to their ancestors. The Gayo people broke away from the Batak Karo people of North Sumatra, because the Batak Karo people are Christians and the people of Gayo are Muslim.

What Are Their Needs?

The Gayo need medical workers to improve the low understanding of health matters. The Gayo also need help in overcoming erosion and dangerous landslides, which at times block important transportation routes in their area. They need more investors to save them from the corrupt buyers enslaving them with in debt and forcing the coffee farmers to sell to them alone. They need quality education systems and health care.

Prayer Points

Pray for people to show Jesus to the gentle-hearted Gayo people desperately searching for hope and life.


Additional information from personal correspondence.

Profile Source:   IPN, 2011   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  

Prayer Links
Global Prayer Digest: 2007-06-28
People Name General Gayo
People Name in Country Gayo
Population in Indonesia 384,000
World Population 384,000
Countries 1
Progress Scale 1.1
Least-Reached Yes
Indigenous Yes
Alternate Names Gajo
Affinity Bloc Malay Peoples
People Cluster Aceh of Sumatra
People Name General Gayo
Ethnic Code MSY44b
People ID 11837
Country Indonesia
Region Southeast Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 47  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country North Sumatra mountain region, Aceh Province, Central Aceh, East Aceh, Gayo Lues, Southeast Aceh regencies.   Source:  Ethnologue 2010
Languages & Dialects on file:  1  (up to 20 largest shown)
Gayo (384,000)
Languages & Dialects (speakers if known) - up to 20 shown
Gayo 384,000
For Primary Language: Gayo

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions No
New Testament No
Complete Bible No
Resource Format
None reported  
Primary Religion: Islam

Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.01 %)
0.03 %
Ethnic Religions
5.00 %
0.00 %
94.97 %
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %

Christian Segments Percent
0.0 %
0.0 %
0.0 %
Other Christian
0.0 %
80.0 %
Roman Catholic
20.0 %
Photo Source: IPN   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Map Source: IPN   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Profile Source: IPN, 2011   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more

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