Hmu, Southern in China

Provided by Joshua Project
Hmu, Southern
Photo Source:  Copyrighted © 2019
Operation China, Asia Harvest  All rights reserved.  Used with permission
Map Source:  Bethany World Prayer Center
People Name: Hmu, Southern
Country: China
10/40 Window: Yes
Population: 854,000
World Population: 854,000
Primary Language: Miao, Southern Qiandong
Primary Religion: Ethnic Religions
Christian Adherents: 0.20 %
Evangelicals: 0.00 %
Scripture: New Testament
Online Audio NT: No
Jesus Film: No
Audio Recordings: Yes
People Cluster: Tibeto-Burman, other
Affinity Bloc: Tibetan-Himalayan Peoples
Progress Level:

Identity

The Hmu are part of the official Miao nationality. Miao is a Chinese term and is not used by the various groups that are termed "Miao." Hmu is the name this group calls itself. For countless centuries most Southern Hmu have lived alongside the Dong minority. In some places the distinction between the Hmu and Dong has become blurred. The two groups often wear identical ethnic dress and celebrate the same festivals.

Southern Hmu is the second largest of the three Hmu languages in China. In northern Guangxi it has been heavily influenced by the Dong and Zhuang languages.

History

Records suggest the ancestors of the Hmu already had a well-developed culture in the Yellow River valley region of Central China more than 2,000 years ago. Chi You, their leader, founded their religion, invented a detailed code of criminal law, and initiated the use of arms.

Customs

Many Southern Hmu are unable to attend school because their communities need every family member to work in the fields. In other areas the cost of schooling is beyond what most families can afford.

Religion

During the annual Hmu Worship of the Door Festival the door is closed at sunset, and a young female pig is sacrificed. The pig's blood is drained into a hole under the door jamb. The family then observes a long period of silence. Eventually the family members retire for the night, except the father and oldest son. They stay up until just before daybreak, solemnly reciting the phrase, "We worship thee, O door. Keep away sickness, keep away disease, keep away slander and all that is injurious."

Christianity

The Catholic church commenced work in Guizhou in the 1600s. In 1870, 300 Hmu from a diaspora group were baptized at Zhengfeng in Guizhou Province. In 1927, Carlo - the first Vicaire Apostolique at Anlong - baptized 150 Hmu believers. Protestant work among the Southern Hmu was slow to develop. In 1950 Ivan Allbut wrote, "In a tribe conservatively estimated to include 500,000 people, there are about 100 who have confessed the Lord in baptism. They have the Black Miao [Hmu] New Testament in their language, but are still waiting for missionaries to teach them how to use it."

Text Source:   Operation China, Asia Harvest  Copyrighted © 2019  Used with permission