Mongol, Khalka in United States





Largest Religion

Main Language



The Mongols - who consist of "as many as sixty separate Mongolian tribes" - are one of China's official nationalities.

The main Mongol language in China is similar to Hahl Mongol in Mongolia, "but there are phonological and important loan differences."


In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the Mongols brutally established the largest empire the world has seen, stretching from Southeast Asia to Europe. They instituted the Yuan Dynasty and ruled China from 1271 to 1368. The terrified Europeans called the Mongols Tatars, meaning "people from hell" (Tartarus).


Through thousands of bitter winters the Mongols have lived in yurts, racing their horses, raising livestock, and worshiping the forces of nature.


At the mercy of their vast and windswept landscape, the ancient Mongols based their religion on the forces of nature. The moon, stars, and sun were all revered, as were rivers. In the past many Mongols were Christians, converted by Nestorian missionaries between the seventh and fourteenth centuries. Even a chapel outside the Great Khan's royal tent "resounded with the sound of public chants and the beating of tablets loudly announcing the appointed hours of Christian worship." Hulagu Khan's wife was described as "the believing and true Christian queen." The Keirats, a Mongol tribe, numbered 200,000 believers in AD 1007, while there were about 30,000 Mongol Catholics recorded in China by 1368.


At times during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries it seemed that the Mongols were on the verge of adopting Christianity as their religion. Kublai Khan issued this challenge to Marco Polo: "Go to your Pope and ask him to send me a hundred men learned in your religion, who in the face of these sorcerers will show their mastery by making the sorcerers powerless to perform these marvels in their presence. Then I will be baptized, and all my magnates and barons will do likewise, and their subjects in turn. Then there will be more Christians here than there are in your part of the world." In 1992 there were about 2,000 Mongol believers reported in China. Today there are believed to be between 5,000 and 12,000. In 1998 a German-based ministry claimed at least 200,000 Mongol Christians in China. This has been strongly challenged by people close to the situation who say this source is unreliable and the claims are grossly exaggerated. The size of the Mongol church in China has long been a matter of dispute. Many have been unable to distinguish between Han believers living in Inner Mongolia, and ethnic Mongols.

Profile Source:   Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  

People Name General Mongol, Khalka (Mong-goll, Hahl-ka)
People Name in Country Mongol, Khalka
Population in United States 15,000
World Population 2,080,000
Countries 11
Progress Scale 1.2
Least-Reached Yes
Indigenous Yes
Alternate Names Bait, Bayad, Bayit, Hahl Mongol, Hanl, Khalka, Khalkha Mongol, Meng Zu, Menggu, Mongolian, Oirat, Southeastern Mongolian, Western Mongul
Affinity Bloc East Asian Peoples
People Cluster Mongolian
People Name General Mongol, Khalka (Mong-goll, Hahl-ka)
Ethnic Code MSY41f
People ID 18605

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Enthologue Language Map

Languages & Dialects on file:  2  (up to 20 largest shown)
Mongolian, Halh Mongolian, Peripheral
Languages & Dialects (speakers if known) - up to 20 shown
Mongolian, Halh Mongolian, Peripheral
For Primary Language: Mongolian, Halh

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions Yes   (1979-1991)
New Testament Yes   (1990)
Complete Bible Yes   (2000)
Audio Bible Online
Resource Format
Audio Bible teaching (GRN) Audio Recordings
Bible: Mongolian Ariun Bible, 2004 Edition Text / Printed Matter
Fathers Love Letter Text / Printed Matter
Four Spiritual Laws General
General Ministry Resources Film / Video
God's Story Video Film / Video
Got Questions Ministry General
Jesus Film: view in Mongolian, Halh Film / Video
Magdalena (Jesus Film Project) Film / Video
My Last Day (Jesus Film Project Anime) Film / Video
Online Scripture (Talking Bibles) Audio Recordings
Story of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project) Audio Recordings
Story of Jesus for Children (JF Project) Film / Video
World Missionary Press Booklets Text / Printed Matter
Primary Religion: Buddhism

Major Religion Percent
35.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 1.20 %)
2.00 %
Ethnic Religions
32.00 %
0.00 %
4.00 %
27.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %

Christian Segments Percent
0.0 %
57.0 %
2.0 %
Other Christian
22.0 %
17.0 %
Roman Catholic
2.0 %
Photo Source: Charles Keen  
Profile Source: Operation China, Paul Hattaway  Copyrighted ©   Used with permission  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more

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