Lunia, Hindu traditions in India






Largest Religion

Main Language


Introduction / History

The Lunia of India are also called Jhumaria Parmer, Nunia, Sambhri and Sambhri Chauhan. They have been salt makers in the past.

The name Lunia comes from Lun or Nun meaning moist and is the name for sea salt. They say they are descended from the Kshatriya. The Lunia look at themselves as superior to the Dhobi, Dhanuk, Nai and Kahar but inferior to the Brahmin, Bania and Rajput. They regard themselves equal to the Thakur, Gadaria, Teli and Lodh. Hindu society though classes them as Sudra, the lowest of the four castes of peasants. They speak in Hindi and read and write in Devanagari. In West Bengal they speak Khotta and in Bihar, the language is Maithili.

Where Are they Located?

They live in Uttar Pradesh. They live in eastern and central districts of places like Lucknow and Kanpur and crime is common where they live. They live in Bihar too and a small number are in West Bengal where they are classed as a Scheduled Caste. This is advantageous to them.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The Lunia do such work as farm work, building roads, railways and digging wells and other construction work. Many are farmers on small plots of land they own. There are a few of them in government and private occupations while some are doctors and lawyers. Some are political leaders.

The Lunia eat meat provided they have enough money but cannot eat beef because of their Hindu religion. They eat cereals like wheat and rice and have seasonal vegetables. Men (not women) drink alcohol and have tobacco too. The literacy level is less than the national average so there is a need for the gospel in oral form. Poverty can be an obstacle to education. They use family planning and traditional and modern medicine. They are given electricity and clean drinking water. There is a lot of debt among them to shopkeepers and moneylenders.

The Lunia are endogamous which means they marry only among their sub caste or subgroup. Both adult and child marriages take place. The bridegroom goes to the home of his bride, marries her and they live in the home of his parents. Usually marriages are done by negotiating. Divorce and marrying again are allowed.

When the father dies, the oldest son is in charge of the family. Sons and daughters inherit the property of their parents equally. The widowed mother gets some money if she does not marry again.

The opinions of women are listened to but the final say is from the men. The Lunia women do the housework. They collect firewood and take part in rituals and social and religious matters.

The Lunia have a regional association in Kanpur and Delhi called the Rajput Maryada Sabha that looks to promote their needs to the government.

What Are Their Beliefs?

The Lunia are Hindus and worship Shiva and Durga as their main god and goddess. They worship other gods and goddesses too. Ancestors are also worshipped. They celebrate festivals such as Diwali and Holi. Varanasi is a main pilgrimage place. Brahmin priests perform birth, marriage and death rituals. The deceased are cremated but children less than five years old are buried. Birth and death pollution periods take place for a set time.


Profile Source:   Anonymous  

Prayer Links
Global Prayer Digest: 2015-08-23
Video Links:
A Pilgrimage
People Name General Lunia, Hindu traditions
People Name in Country Lunia, Hindu traditions
Population in India 3,221,000
World Population 3,325,000
Countries 3
Progress Scale 1.1
Least-Reached Yes
Indigenous Yes
Alternate Names Agri, Behari, Bihari, Chauhan, Chunari, Hindustani, Jhumaria Parmer, Kharwat, Lonari, Londhari, Lunia, Luniya, Luniyar, Mungar, Murha, Nonia, Noniar, Noongar, Nungar, Nunia, Nuniya, Paschinafati, Sambhri, Sambhri Chauhan, Tel Julaha, Teli Julaha, Uppar
Affinity Bloc South Asian Peoples
People Cluster Hindi
People Name General Lunia, Hindu traditions
Ethnic Code CNN25g
People ID 17391
Country India
Region South Asia
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
Persecution Rank 21  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States on file:  17  (up to 20 largest shown)
Uttar Pradesh (1,828,000) Bihar (1,247,000) West Bengal (73,000) Madhya Pradesh (38,000)
Jharkhand (21,000) Maharashtra (3,500) Uttarakhand (2,600) Odisha (1,800)
Haryana (1,400) Tripura (1,300) Himachal Pradesh (1,100) Assam (700)
Delhi (600) Chhattisgarh (300) Chandigarh (200) Andaman and Nicobar (200)
Karnataka (100)
Total States on file:  17  (up to 20 largest shown)
Uttar Pradesh (1,828,000) Bihar (1,247,000)
West Bengal (73,000) Madhya Pradesh (38,000)
Jharkhand (21,000) Maharashtra (3,500)
Uttarakhand (2,600) Odisha (1,800)
Haryana (1,400) Tripura (1,300)
Himachal Pradesh (1,100) Assam (700)
Delhi (600) Chhattisgarh (300)
Chandigarh (200) Andaman and Nicobar (200)
Karnataka (100)
Languages & Dialects on file:  24  (up to 20 largest shown)
Hindi (1,856,000) Bhojpuri (929,000) Awadhi (106,000) Maithili (101,000)
Bengali (71,000) Kanauji (40,000) Magahi (22,000) Bagheli (7,200)
Chhattisgarhi (2,900) Bundeli (2,300) Garhwali (1,600) Oriya (1,300)
Angika (1,300) Malvi (900) Panjabi, Eastern (500) Kangri (400)
Haryanvi (300) Assamese (300) Mandeali (300) Pahari, Mahasu (100)
Languages & Dialects (speakers if known) - up to 20 shown
Hindi 1,856,000 Bhojpuri 929,000
Awadhi 106,000 Maithili 101,000
Bengali 71,000 Kanauji 40,000
Magahi 22,000 Bagheli 7,200
Chhattisgarhi 2,900 Bundeli 2,300
Garhwali 1,600 Oriya 1,300
Angika 1,300 Malvi 900
Panjabi, Eastern 500 Kangri 400
Haryanvi 300 Assamese 300
Mandeali 300 Pahari, Mahasu 100
For Primary Language: Hindi

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible Portions Yes   (1806-1962)
New Testament Yes   (1811-1998)
Complete Bible Yes   (1818-2000)
Audio Bible Online
Resource Format
Audio Bible teaching (GRN) Audio Recordings
Bible Visuals General
Bible: Hindi Holy Bible Text / Printed Matter
Bible: Hindi Holy Bible Text / Printed Matter
Bibles, Bible League Text / Printed Matter
Christ for the Nations Text / Printed Matter
EasyBibles Text / Printed Matter
EasyBibles Text / Printed Matter
Fathers Love Letter Film / Video
Following Jesus (India, JF Project) Film / Video
God's Story Video Film / Video
Gods Simple Plan General
Got Questions Ministry General
Hindi Bible Text / Printed Matter
Hindi Bible stories Audio Recordings
International Bible Society Text / Printed Matter
Jesus Film: view in Hindi Film / Video
Magdalena (Jesus Film Project) Film / Video
My Last Day (Jesus Film Project Anime) Film / Video
Online Bible (Bibles India) Text / Printed Matter
Primary Religion: Hinduism

Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
100.00 %
0.00 %
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %

Christian Segments Percent
0.0 %
0.0 %
0.0 %
Other Christian
0.0 %
0.0 %
Roman Catholic
0.0 %
Photo Source: India Missions Association   Copyrighted ©   Used with permission
Map Source: Omid / Joshua Project / Global Mapping Intl  
Video Source: Create International
Profile Source: Anonymous  
Data Sources: Data is compiled from various sources. Read more

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