Introduction / History
The Kazak of Turkmenistan belong to a larger group of people who live primarily in Kazakstan. They are of Turkic descent, and are closely related to the Kyrgyz and the Karakalpak. The Kazak are the second largest Muslim group of Central Asia. In the past, they were perhaps the most influential of the various Central Asian ethnic groups; however, about half of the Kazak population was killed during the Russian Civil War of the 1920's and 1930's. During this time, many fled to China and Mongolia.
The Kazak developed a distinct ethnic identity in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Several of their clans formed a federation that would provide mutual protection. As other clans joined the federation its political influence began to take on an ethnic character.
During the nineteenth century, the Russians acquired Central Asia through a steady process of annexation. They eventually claimed the entire territory of Kazakstan.
What are Their Lives Like?
Since the collapse of Soviet communism, the Kazak have been searching for their identity. Traditionally, they were nomadic shepherds; however, under Soviet rule, much of their land was seized and used for collective farming. As industry developed, their economy and culture became dependent entirely on the Russians. Today, however, there is a widespread movement to re-develop their own cultural identity.
As nomadic shepherds, the Kazak lived in dome shaped felt tents called yurts. Under Russian rule, many were forced to move to the cities and live in houses or small apartments. Most of these two or three room apartments have running water, though in some rural areas they have no hot water. The water is clean, but not safe to drink. Many of the Kazak have now moved to other Central Asian nations, such as Turkmenistan, in search of work in the cities or on the farms.
The Kazak eat a variety of meat and dairy products. Rice and bread are common staples. In the southern regions of Kazakstan, the people enjoy eating grapes, melons, and tomatoes.
Western style dress is common among the men and women living in the cities. However, the rural Kazak workers generally wear loose, colorless shirts with baggy trousers that are tied at the waist. This outfit is similar to the native costume of the past.
The structure of the Kazak family is traditionally patriarchal, or male-dominated, but this gradually changed under soviet rule. Legal authority that once belonged to the male head of the household has now been shifted to the head of the collective farm. These changes have caused a breakdown in the traditional Kazak family.
What are Their Beliefs?
The Kazak embraced Islam during the sixteenth century and still consider themselves Muslim today. Changes in Kazak society (mainly from a nomadic to a settled lifestyle) and an attempt by the Soviets to suppress religious freedoms have led the people to adopt Islam more closely. However, their Islamic practices have been combined with traditional folk religions.
The Kazak formerly practiced animism and ancestor worship. ("Animism" is the belief that non-human objects have spirits. "Ancestor worship" involves praying and offering sacrifices to deceased ancestors.) Today, they continue to consult shamans (priests who communicate with the spirits). They also practice traditional rituals before and after marriage, at birth, and at death.
What are Their Needs?
The Kazak are facing ecological problems due to the poor management of natural resources. This has caused the near desolation of the Aral Sea and contamination of much of their drinking water. The infant mortality rate is very high. There is also a high rate of still births and babies born with birth defects. This may explain why so many of the Kazak have moved from Kazakstan into other Central Asian nations.
* Ask the Lord to send long term laborers to live among the Kazak and share the love of Christ with them.
* Ask the Holy Spirit to open the hearts of the Kazak towards Christians so that they will be receptive to the Gospel.
* Pray that God will raise up prayer teams to go and break up the soil through worship and intercession.
* Ask God to grant favor and wisdom to the missions agencies that may be focusing on the Kazak.
* Pray that Christian businessmen will have open doors to share the Gospel with the Kazak.
* Ask the Lord to raise up strong local churches among the Kazak.
|Profile Source: Bethany World Prayer Center|